Container ship

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Image:Resim 057.jpg
Container ship in Istanbul

Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial ocean transportation, known as Intermodal.

Contents

[edit] History

The first container ships were converted tankers, built up from surplus tanker T-2's after World War II. The first container ship was the Ideal-X, a converted T-2 tanker, owned by Malcom McLean, which carried 58 metal containers between Newark, New Jersey and Houston, Texas on its first voyage, in April 1956. Now container ships are all purpose-built and as a class are second only to crude oil tankers as the biggest cargo ships on the oceans.

[edit] Construction

Image:CMA CGM Balzac.jpg
Container ship "CMA CGM Balzac" in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium.

Container ships are designed in such a manner that no space is wasted. Their capacity is measured in TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units). This is the number of 20-foot containers that a vessel can carry. The majority of containers used today are 40 feet in length. Above a certain size, container ships do not carry their own loading gear. Hence loading and unloading can only be done at ports with the necessary cranes. However, smaller ships with capacities up to 2,900 TEUs are often equipped with their own cranes.

Informally known as "box boats," they carry the majority of the world's dry cargo, meaning manufactured goods. Cargoes like metal ores or coal or wheat are carried in bulk carriers. There are large main line vessels that ply the deep sea routes, then many small "feeder" ships that supply the large ships at centralized hub ports. Most container ships are propelled by diesel engines, and have crews of between 20 and 40 people. They generally have a large accommodation block at the stern, directly above the engine room. Container ships now carry up to 15,000 containers on a voyage.

[edit] Shipyards

Large container ships (over 7,000 TEUs) have been built in the following shipyards:

[edit] Risks

Image:Container ship loading-700px.jpg
Container ship "Rita" being loaded at Copenhagen; note crew standing on deck, and stacks of containers on shore.

As they can carry up to 15,000 containers, the total value of cargo per vessel can reach $300 million. The ceaseless transit of these containers (at any given time, between 5 million and 6 million units) entails a great deal of risk.

Some of the risks are linked to the loading of containers. Each ship carries many containers, and complex organization is required to not lose or misroute containers. Outside of container manifests, there is no way to know the contents of each container. Containers are usually loaded by a portainer. There must be as little vibration of the loaded container as possible. Thus the operator has to be well-qualified and experienced to operate the crane efficiently.

Maneuvers in the port managed by the control tower may be dangerous. In open sea, storms can cause the loss of containers. The great value of merchandise on these vessels makes them a target for hijackers. Well-organized piracy remains a threat in places such as Indonesia.

Also, containers are often used to smuggle contraband.

[edit] Specificities

Cargo too big to carry in containers can be handled using flat racks, open top containers and platforms. There are also container ships called Roll On/Roll Off (RORO), which utilize shore-based ramp systems for loading and unloading. ROROs are usually associated with shorter trade routes, as they are unable to carry the volume of crane-based container vessels. However, due to their flexibility and high speed, ROROs are frequently used in today's container markets. Moreover due to the growth of the containers transit, companies must manage container ship risks.

[edit] Future

The trend is for bigger sizes of container ships to reduce costs by economy of scales. In years to come, the limit will be the Suezmax ship of 14,000 TEUs. Such a vessel needs to displace 137,000 DWT, be 400 meters long, more than 50 meters wide, have a draft of nearly 15 metres and more than 85 MW to achieve 25.5 knots. The new containership Emma Maersk does now reach this limit.

The next step will be the Malaccamax ship, with 18,000 TEUs, of 200,000 DWT, 470 meters long, 60 meters wide, 16 meters of draft, with more than 100 MW for 25.5 knots. This should be the limit before a major restructuring of world container trade routes. The biggest constraint of this design, the absence of a capable single engine, has been overcome by the MAN B&W K108ME-C.

The ultimate problem was the absence of a manufacturer capable of producing the 10-meter in diameter, 130-tonne propeller needed for transmitting this power, but one has been built for the Emma Maersk since. Other constraints, such as time in port and flexibility of service routes are similar to the constraints that eventually limited the growth in size of the supertankers.

[edit] Largest ships

Biggest Ships in the World, listed by TEU capacity
Built Name Length o.a. Beam Maxium TEU GT Owners/Flag
2006 Emma Mærsk 397.7 m 56.4 m 14,500 151,687 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 or 2007 Eleonora Mærsk 397.7 m 56.4 m 14,500 151,687 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 Estelle Mærsk 397.7 m 56.4 m 14,500 151,687 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 Georg Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 Gerd Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2005 Gjertrud Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2005 Grete Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2005 Gudrun Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2005 Gunvor Mærsk 367.3 m 42.8 m 10,150 97,933 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 CSCL Pusan 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,580 107,200 Seaspan Container Line/Cyprus
2006 Xin Los Angeles 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,580 107,200 China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL)/Hong Kong
2006 Xin Shanghai 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,580 107,200 China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL)/Hong Kong
2006 Cosco Beijing 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,469 99,833 Costamare Shipping/Greece
2006 Cosco Hellas 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,469 99,833 Costamare Shipping/Greece
2006 Cosco Guangzhou 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,469 99,833 Costamare Shipping/Greece
2006 Cosco Ningbo 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,469 99,833 Costamare Shipping/Greece
2006 Cosco Yantian 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,469 99,833 Costamare Shipping/Greece
2006 CMA CGM Fidelio 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,415 99,500 CMA CGM/France
2006 CMA CGM Medea 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,415 95,000 CMA CGM/France
2006 CMA CGM Norma 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,415 95,000 CMA CGM/Bahamas
2006 CMA CGM Rigoletto 350.0 m 42.8 m 9,415 99,500 CMA CGM/France
2003 Arnold Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2003 Anna Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2004 Albert Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2004 Adrian Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2003 Arthur Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2003 Axel Mærsk 352.6 m 42.8 m 9,310 93,496 Maersk Line/Denmark
2006 MSC Esthi 335.0 m 45.8 m 9,200 99,500 MSC/Liberia
2005 MSC Pamela 336.7 m 45.6 m 9,200 90,449 MSC/Liberia
2005 MSC Susanna 321.0 m 45.6 m 9,200 90,449 MSC/Liberia
2005 MSC Chicago 321.0 m 45.6 m 9,200 90,449 Offen Claus-Peter/Liberia
2005 MSC Bruxelles 321.0 m 45.6 m 9,200 90,449 Offen Claus-Peter/Liberia
2006 MSC Madeleine 348.5 m 42.8 m 9,100 107,551 MSC/Liberia
2006 MSC Ines 348.5 m 42.8 m 9,100 107,551 MSC/Liberia
2002 Charlotte Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,890 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2002 Clementine Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,890 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2002 Columbine Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,890 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2002 Cornelia Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,890 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2005 Colombo Express 335.5 m 42.8 m 8,749 93,750 Hapag-Lloyd/Germany
2006 Chicago Express 335.5 m 42.8 m 8,749 93,750 Hapag-Lloyd/Germany
2005 Kyoto Express 335.5 m 42.8 m 8,749 93,750 Hapag-Lloyd/Germany
1999 Clifford Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1998 Sally Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1998 Sine Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1999 Skagen Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1998 Sofie Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1999 Sorø Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1997 Sovereing Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1997 Susan Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1999 Svend Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
1998 Svendborg Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,680 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2000 A.P. Møller 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,660 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2000 Caroline Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,660 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2000 Carsten Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,660 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2001 Chastine Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,660 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2001 Cornelius Mærsk 347.0 m 42.8 m 8,660 91,690 Maersk Line/Denmark
2001 Laura Mærsk 266.0 m 37.0 m 3,700 50,721 Maersk Line/Denmark
2004 CSCL Europe 334.0 m 42.80 m 8,498 90,645 Allocean Maritime/Cyprus
2005 CSCL Africa 334.0 m 42.9 m 8,468 90,645 Seaspan Container Line/Cyprus
2004 CSCL America 334.0 m 42.9 m 8,468 90,645 Allocean Maritime/Cyprus
2004 CSCL Asia 334.0 m 42.9 m 8,468 90,645 Seaspan Container Line/Hong Kong
2004 CSCL Oceania 334.0 m 42.9 m 8,468 90,645 Seaspan Container Line/Hong Kong
2006 Mærsk Seville 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,452 94,724 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2005 Mærsk Santana 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,452 94,724 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2006 Mærsk Sheerness 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,452 94,724 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2005 Mærsk Sarnia 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,452 94,724 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2005 Mærsk Sydney 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,452 94,724 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2006 MSC Heidi 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 MSC/Panama
2005 MSC Rania 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 MSC/Panama
2006 MSC Silvana 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 MSC/Panama
2005 Houston Express 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 Norddeutsche Reederei/Germany
2005 Savannah Express 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 Norddeutsche Reederei/Germany
2006 Mærsk Stralsund 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2006 Mærsk Saigon 332.4 m 43.2 m 8,400 95,000 Blue Star GmbH/Liberia
2004 CMA CGM Hugo 334.1 m 42.8 m 8,238 90,745 NSB Niederelbe/Germany
2004 CMA CGM Vivaldi 334.1 m 42.8 m 8,238 90,745 CMA CGM/Bahamas
2004 MSC Rachele 334.1 m 42.8 m 8,238 90,745 NSB Niederelbe/Germany
2004 Pacific Link 334.1 m 42.8 m 8,238 90,745 NSB Niederelbe/Germany
2006 CMA CGM Traviata 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 91,400 CMA CGM/France
2006 CMA CGM Nabucco 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 91,400 CMA CGM/France
2005 CMA CGM Otello 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 91,400 CMA CGM/France
2006 CMA CGM Carmen 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 CMA CGM Don Carlos 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 CMA CGM Don Giovanni 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 CMA CGM Parsifal 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2005 Cosco China 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 91,649 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 Cosco Germany 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 Cosco Napoli 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,204 89,800 E R Schiffahrt/Liberia
2006 YM Utmost 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,189 88,600 Yang Ming Line/Taiwan
2006 YM Unity 335.0 m 42.8 m 8,189 88,600 Yang Ming Line/Taiwan
2005 MSC Lucy 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 MSC/Panama
2005 MSC Maeva 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 MSC/Panama
2005 MSC Rita 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 MSC/Panama
2005 MSC Busan 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 Offen Claus-Peter/Panama
2005 MSC Beijing 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 Offen Claus-Peter/Panama
2006 MSC Toronto 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 Offen Claus-Peter/Panama
2006 MSC Charleston 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 Offen Claus-Peter/Panama
2006 MSC Vittoria 324.8 m 42.8 m 8,089 89,954 MSC/Panama
2005 Ever Champion 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2005 Ever Charming 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2006 Ever Chivalry 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2006 Ever Conquest 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2006 Ital Contessa 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2005 Lt Cortesia 339.9 m 42.8 m 8,073 90,449 NSB Niederelbe/Marshall Islands
2006 OOCL Asia 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Hongkong
2005 OOCL Atlanta 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,000 OOCL/Hongkong
2006 OOCL Europe 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Hongkong
2004 OOCL Hamburg 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Marshall Islands
2003 OOCL Long Beach 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Marshall Islands
2004 OOCL Ningbo 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Marshall Islands
2003 OOCL Shenzhen 322.97 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Hongkong
2005 OOCL Tianjin 323.0 m 42.8 m 8,063 89,097 OOCL/Marshall Islands

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Notes

  • The size of a container ship is defined throughout the world in terms of TEU capacity. The exception is the Maersk Line. It does not quote the TEU capacity, but instead the maximum load capacity in terms of filled TEUs with an average 14 tonne total weight. This value is always less than the raw TEU capacity. These values are noted in the table above.
  • Information on true container ship capacities is commercially sensitive and may be several thousand TEUs higher.
  • This list is updated as large ships are completed.

[edit] References

[edit] External links

fr:Porte-conteneurs id:Kapal kontainer it:Portacontainer nl:Containerschip pl:Kontenerowiec pt:Navio porta-contentores ru:Контейнеровоз sv:Containerfartyg zh:貨櫃船

Container ship

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