Yeoman

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[edit] Etymology and early use

The English word is rooting in the Old English ‘iunge man’ or , ‘young man’ or ‘yonge man’, and this meaning possibly combined with ‘geaman’, ‘geman’, or ‘gauman’, meaning district, villager, or countryman rustic. In the Fifteenth Century, a ‘yeoman’ was also a farmer of middling social status who owned his own land and often farmed it himself into prosperity. In German occupational and social standing, the ‘yeoman farmer’ is known as a ‘Freibauer’ (meaning freehold farmer). In the middle ages or medieval times, a ‘yeoman’ was identified as a rank, or position in a noble or royal household with titles such as: Yeoman of the Chamber, Yeoman of the Crown, Yeoman Usher, King's Yeoman, and various others. Most duties were connected with protecting the sovereign and dignitaries as a bodyguard, attending the sovereign with various tasks as needed, or duties assigned to his office.

[edit] Current modern definition and usage

  1. A member of the Yeomanry (a division of the British Territorial Army).
  2. A member of the Yeomen of the Guard or Yeomen Warders of the Tower of London.
  3. A small prosperous farmer (16th to 17th C.)
  4. A freeborn servant in a noble or royal household (12th to 15th C.)
  5. A deputy, assistant, journeyman, a loyal or faithful servant.
  6. Used to define superior or outstanding service, quality work, and dependable action.
  7. A petty officer in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard assigned to administrative duties.
  8. A signalling (tactical communications) petty officer in the British Royal Navy (known as a 'Yeoman of Signals').
  9. A servant in the Royal Household at Windsor Palace (e.g., Yeoman of the Cellar).

[edit] Origins of the term

It's still highly debated today by linguists about the origins of the term 'yeoman'. The word 'yeoman' most likely derived from the Proto-Germanic term 'Gauja' or 'Gauia', an ancient word meaning 'district' or 'country', hence the term, 'countryman' or 'man-of-the-district'. The suffix 'ge-' exists in Anglo-Saxon in ancient place names such as 'Suthrige'; which is modern day Surrey. The Anglo Saxon suffix or prefix ‘ge-‘ is cognate with the Old Germanic suffix or prefix ‘gau-‘. In many parts of modern Germany, and Switzerland there are regional names which contain the suffix ‘gau’. Place names with ‘gau’ attached as a suffix are primarily located or situated along the ancient river borderlands.

The expanded form of ‘yeoman’ being that such as ‘yongeman’ or ‘yongerman’ is possibly of Anglo-Saxon or northwestern Germanic origin which eventually became ‘yeman’ or ‘yoman’ in the Middle Ages (with variations such as ‘yoeman’ , etc.). In the early 1300s AD, the word emerges into a more recognizable form in the modern spelling of ‘yeoman’. By 1363 AD the vernacular form of English was officially recognized as the national language of the kingdom, whereas previously the French term ‘valet’ (used in formal language), and the Latin term ‘valectus’ (used in the courts) was replaced by the term ‘yeoman’. The term ‘yeoman’, primarily identified as a ‘servant’ is noted throughout the Calendar Patent Rolls in the early 1300s.

[edit] The Medieval period

Throughout the Medieval Period the term ‘yeoman’ was used within the royal and noble households to indicate a servant's rank, degree, position or status. A 'yeoman' during the middle-ages was commonly used in feudal or private warfare. 'Yeoman' is also believed to come from the word 'yonge' or 'iunge' man (meaning young man), possibly as a freeborn servant (serviens or sergeant) in rank between the esquire (shield escort, from scutum) and page (pagus, meaning rustic, later on used to define young errand boys).

Anciently, long before the concept of ‘chivalry’ and the ‘crusades’ were born from the ideas of Christianity, the term 'knight' (from cniht) originally meant boy. Terms used such as 'radman' and 'radcniht' or 'radknight' being defined as riding man or road man, riding boy or road boy (page). The difference of terms helps to distinguish the young riding men or ‘yeomen’ from the riding boys or ‘pages’ who provide a riding service, or road service. It also indicates a path of career progression within a noble or royal household.

All the fighting classes of men in the middle ages from the knights (in particular knight’s bachelors), squires, yeomen, to pages were usually young servants; the degree of importance or status of each changed over time. Many serving men (serviens or sergeants) would usually promote, or sometimes (rarely) demote to various positions of degree or importance within the king's, or within the lord's household.

The term "yongermen" is found in text as early as the 12th Century, as well is "geongramanna" found in Beowulf in a much earlier period (c. 700-800 AD). Serving men of districts, since the days of the ‘Gau’ republics in Germania, and the stretches of the Germanic peoples throughout Western Europe immediately after the collapse of the Roman Empire would most likely be young men, or young men of the district. 'Yeoman' or 'gauman' within the definition of both land and/or service of a young man appeared mostly settled around the border regions or remote country sides of their districts, or kingdoms (both modern and ancient); thus a connection or association with pagus (pages), or rustics to the term ‘yeoman’.

[edit] The Dark Ages

In Tacitus' Germania he writes of young men chosen from every district (pagus), who are swift on foot, and with this swift ability they support the cavalry, fixed in number (100) and from this they take their name of honor. It's not known exactly what that name is in which Tacitus was writing about (though claims of hundred-men have been made, it has not been validated). Their most likely equivalent is that of ancient Roman centurions, in itself an ancient idea that is most likely associated with the concept of using young men of status within their districts for the wars, e.g., in later times known as 'yeomen', 'pages', 'squires', and 'knights'.

The Yeomen of the Guard is an example of the use of the number 100 of special military corps/royal bodyguard as told in the tales of Robin Hood. The number 100 is also a number that is commonly used in the formation of the lesser fyrd created in during the reign of King Alfred the Great for protecting the districts (homeland defense); while the general fyrd also created by King Alfred the Great was primarily an expeditionary force.

In many ways the ancient 'yeoman' is very similar to the modern concept of the 'yeomanry' today who are volunteers of the Territorial Army protecting the United Kingdom, ‘yeomanry’ ancestry comes from the volunteer cavalry in the mid 1700s, and later to become known as the Yeomanry Cavalry in the 1790s.

The term 'yeoman' is also used to define a man who follows a chief, or a lord; in ancient times known as 'gau judices' (district chiefs). The term is similar in concept to 'geneatas' meaning companion (with geneatas being classed as peasants). In the Brythonic language the term 'gweis' is similarly used in the same context as a young freeborn servant. The ancient Brittonic word 'gweis' is very similar to 'gewi-' or 'gawi-' prefixes in Gothic. Both languages are now extinct, though ancient Brittonic language has evolved into modern Welsh and Cornish, while Cumbrian (Northern Welsh) and many other Britonnic dialects are now extinct.

[edit] Ancient to modern usage

If the term 'yeoman' is associated with land, or degree of land ownership, then it may have its ancient roots in the early Anglo-Saxon rule of England or earlier (thus coming full circle to its most likely etymological roots). In ancient times the land was a strong indicator of social status, and wealth, since the period known as the Dark Ages, and in terms like 'yeoman farmer' used in the 16th Century to denote prosperous small farmers; whether land was copyhold, freehold, or a mixture of both.

As land indicated social status, just as the term yeoman farmer in the 1600s as an identifier of social status for small freeholders or copyholders of land with and an indicated amount of wealth that is a determing factor of his social standing. Not all yeomen owned land as many were indentured or feudal servants in a castle. In earlier Anglo Saxon rule, the class of 'geneatas' would most likely be the classification a 'yeoman' in this period as an aristocratic peasantry.

The 'yeoman' would be the connection between royalty and nobility to the peasantry, thus a middling class of sorts in feudal or manorial service to either the king, or a lord. Also possibly identified within a class of libri homini (freemen) within Domesday, the 'yeoman' in service to a king or lord would be known as serviens/sergeants, or valet/valectus during the Norman period. There also men known as 'socmen' or 'sokemen', usually derived from Anglian or Danish sources, equivalent in status as 'radman', thus combining land status and servile status as equals.

[edit] Term used as a compliment or praise

This is most likely based upon the historical achievements of winning numerous battles during the Hundred Years' War when the odds and numbers were stacked against the yeoman archers in these conflicts. It also may have been used to denote the excellent or superior service given by a king’s servant performing heroic duties such as preventing an assassination attempt on his life, or protecting his castle or palace (such as we see in the modern day Yeomen of the Guard and the Yeomen Warders of the Tower of London).

The term used in context such as the forester provided ‘yeoman service’ in finding the lost children in the woods, or the Hubble Telescope has done ‘yeoman service’ or ‘yeoman’s duty’ over the last three decades. He made a ‘yeoman’s effort’ to clean the garage. The security guard did ‘yeoman’s work’ last night by staying alert and preventing a break-in entry after working very long hours in austere conditions.

[edit] Yeoman farmers

Yeoman farmers were originally a class of British or English landholding (freehold and copyhold) farmers in the late 14th to the 18th century. The amount of land owned and the wealth of the English yeoman farmer varied from place to place. Many yeoman farmers were prosperous, mixed with the minor gentry and some even rented land to gentleman landowners. Some were entitled to be classed as gentlemen but did not pursue it, as it was cheaper to remain a yeoman. Some yeomen farmers of the later Tudor and Stuart period shared the heritage and ancestry of the occupational medieval yeoman, as attested mainly by weapons found above the fireplace mantles (especially in the border shires) of the West Midlands part of England.

Yeoman farmers were called upon to serve their sovereign and their country well after the Middle Ages, for example in the Yeomanry Cavalry of the late 1700s and later Imperial Yeomanry of the late 1890s.

Most yeomen farmers had servants or labourers with whom they would work if they had the means to afford such services. The term Yeoman Farmer was later used to distinguish them from Gentleman Farmers, who did not labour with their hands. Some yeomen had more wealth than the minor gentry, but remained classed as yeomen by choice rather than by necessity. Often it was hard to distinguish minor gentry from the wealthier yeomen farmers, and wealthier husbandmen from the poorer yeoman farmers.

Sir Anthony Richard Wagner, Garter Principal King of Arms, wrote that "a Yeoman would not normally have less than 100 acres" (40 hectares) and in social status is one step down from the Gentry, but above, say, a husbandman. (English Genealogy, Oxford, 1960, pps: 125-130).

The Concise Oxford Dictionary, (edited by H.W. & F.G. Fowler, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972 reprint, p.1516) states that a Yeoman is "a person qualified by possessing free land of 40/- annual [feudal] value, and who can serve on juries and vote for a Knight of the Shire. He is sometimes described as a small landowner, a farmer of the middle classes."

In the United States yeomen were identified in the 18th and 19th Centuries as non-slaveholding small landowning family farmers. They were mostly southern Caucasians. Yeoman farmers, because they owned no slaves of their own, frequently hired slaves at harvest time to help in the fields. In an area where land was poor, like eastern Tennessee, the landowning yeomen were typically subsistence farmers, but grew some crops for the market. Whether they engaged in subsistence or commercial agriculture, they controlled far more modest landholdings than those of the planters, more likely in the range of over fifty to two hundred acres, rather than five hundred or more acres.

[edit] Yeoman medieval obligations

Yeomen were identified in the middle ages as persons owning land worth approximately 40s to 80s annually, roughly between ¼ Hide and 1 Hide (about 30 to 120 acres, or 12 to 50 hectares). In the early 12th Century, 40 acres (16 hectares) of land was worth about 40s to 50s. The Assize of Arms of 1252 gave instructions for the small landholder to be armed and trained with a bow and those of more wealth (wealthy yeomen) would be required to possess and be trained with sword, dagger and the longbow (the war bow). The Assize of Arms of 1252 AD identify a class long identified with the ‘yeomanry’, being a 40-shilling freeholder, and indicates "Those with land worth annual 40s-100s will be armed/trained with bow and arrow, sword, buckler and dagger". The description of societal standing of landowning persons mentioned in the 1252 Assize of Arms of who is to own and train with certain weapons epitomizes the Knight's Yeoman such as the one in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Yeoman's Portrait in the General Prologue).

[edit] Evolution of the letter Y (from glyph to letter)

In ancient manuscripts the Y looks like a small letter z that has been handwritten. This is a glyph known as a 'yogh' and may be associated with the yew tree and corresponds with the ancient Irish Ogham runeset. Irish monks or scribes during the early middle ages created the glyph known as ‘yogh’, and from which the letter ‘Y’ is descended. The ancient glyph ‘yogh’ appears in texts such as Chaucer's Canterbury Tales created sometime around 1400 AD.

The letter 'y' used in the word 'yeoman' in the General Prologue and throughout the Canterbury Tales is originally in the form of the glyph 'yogh' in the original manuscripts. The glyph 'yogh' may have possibly originated from the letter ‘G’ on the continent. Irish monks or scribes may also have created the letter ‘G’ from the strokes of the letter ‘T’ and eventually to become the glyph ‘yogh’, and eventually evolved into the letter ‘Y’.

The letter 'Y' may have developed sometime after the Normans arrived to England, who may not have accepted the glyphs as acceptable forms used in written communications. Though the glyph 'yogh' did not disappear possibly until the advent of Caxton’s printing press in the 1400s, typesets eventually converted the glyph 'yogh' into what is called a zeta or 'Z'.

[edit] Yeoman archers and yew war bows

The English war bow, known as the longbow (the main weapon of a yeoman archer) was typically but not always made of yew wood, oftentimes Wych Elm and other woods were used for making bow staves. Though yeomen archers are inextricably tied to the English War Yew Bow, it was the Spanish, French and Italian yew that was highly sought after because of its superior qualities of growth and the extremely restricted availability over English Yew in the late Middle Ages.

Though historically tied with the yew war bow, the word ‘yeoman’ itself is most likely not derived from the word ‘yew’, and therefore it is a false conclusion that 'yew' is cognate with 'yeo'. The term ‘yeo’ has also been defined as a district of water, such as a river district, mainly in regions of southwest England the names of streams are followed by the term 'yeo'. As stated earlier in the text, the term ‘yeoman’ is derived from ‘gau’, meaning district or from ‘iunge’ meaning ‘young’ or a combination thereof both 'district', 'young', and 'man', as thus possibly being defined as ‘young+man+of+the+district, or ‘district+young+man’ (see origins of the term).

The 'yeoman' archer’ was very unique to England and Wales (in particular, South East Wales with the famed archers of Gwent, Glamorgan, Crickhowell, and Abergavenny regions, and South West England with the Royal Forest of Dean, Kingswood Royal Forest near Bristol, and the New Forest). Though the Kentish Weald archers are noted for their skills, as well the Ettrick Archers of Scotland, it appears the bulk of the 'yeomanry' was from the western and northern regions of England and Southern and Eastern Wales (English and Welsh Marches; The Borders).

The original Yeomen of the Guard (originally archers) chartered in 1485 AD were all most likely of Briton descent (Welsh, Breton, etc), established by King Henry VII, himself a Briton who was exiled in Brittany during the Wars of the Roses. He recruited his forces throughout mostly Wales and West Midlands England on his victorious journey to Bosworth Field.

The Welsh have the honour of being the first to be attested in written history in using the 'longbow' made of yew and elm (circa 650 AD) either against the Mercians, or as allies of the Mercians against Northumbria. The incident at Abergavenny Castle, where a Welsh arrow pierced through armour and the legs of an English knight was certainly not unknown to King Henry II, and his grandson Henry III who created or signed the Assize of Arms 1252 identifying the 'war bow' as a national weapon for classes of men who held land under 80s or 100s annually. Certainly the 'Yongermen' fell under this classification. By Edward I's reign the bulk of the archers were Welsh, who defeated the Scots and eventually would be used with great success by King Edward III in the Hundred Years' War. The famous ‘yeoman archers’ drawn from the Macclesfield Hundred and the Forest districts of the Cheshire region were specially appointed as bodyguard archers for King Richard II.

The Normans brought back the concept of archery into medieval warfare, probably suppressed by the Anglo Saxons during their reign as they tend to be more focused on spears as the national weapon. This can be attested in the Bayeux Tapestry, showing one lonely archer fighting against the Normans in what could very well by symbolic of the lack of assistance given by the Welsh or Britons to the Saxons against the Norman invasion and conquest. The Normans historically were either strong allies of the Welsh or Britons who strongly opposed the Anglo Saxons or bitter enemies. In the region of the English marches there are still numerous Norman castles owned by what were called Marcher Lords.

King Charlemagne was a strong proponent of archery, and believed in a strong archer force, and this may have had influence on King William I in the use of archers in his conquest of England. King William I was allied with Britanny (exiled Britons), and this is most likely where he drew his archers from during the invasion and conquest of England. After Charlemagne’s death, the importance of archery fell into disuse and the concept of a chivalric cavalry and Christianity brought forth the era of crusading knights in shining armor that had never existed before. Until the fall of Rome, the infantry was always held in higher esteem, and the Master of the Foot was a superior to the Master of the Horse, and when the two offices combined, it was the Master of the Foot which had precedence. The Hundred Years War would change the concept back to a dismounted infantry as being the superior force over cavalry.

There continue to be heated discussions as to whether the longbow was an English longbow or Welsh longbow, and even claims that the Vikings or Danes brought the longbow to England. It is noticeable that the yew longbow seems to be a common weapon within the Bell Beaker culture, which is most likely ancestral to the Celtic people. Yew trees have always been more abundant in southwestern Europe than in northern Europe. Iberian archers or their equipment are the oldest known of the Bell Beaker culture. Recent DNA studies indicate most Britons are descended from ancestors who left the region of Iberia around 5,000 years ago. Some of the most ancient cave art of archers in the world are found in Iberia of archers hunting and fighting or participating in contests. The ancient skill of archery may have been transported from this region of Europe to England, as attested by the Amesbury Archer and Boscombe Archers found near the megalithic monument of Stonehenge and their equipment identified as belonging to the Bell Beaker culture.

[edit] Yeoman positions in society

The Yeoman represented a status between the aristocratic knights and the lower-class foot soldiers and household servants (pages). The yeoman archer was typically mounted and fought either on foot or on horseback, in contrast with infantry archers, and came to be applied to societal standing as a farmer in particular during the 14th to 18th Centuries. A Yeoman during the 12th and 13th Centuries was primarily a household and military (semi-feudal and feudal) term later associated with the days of private warfare.

Yeomen are also noted as providing guard escorts to deliveries of victuals and supplies (not only fighting as an elite archer but also as a guard to the baggage train as well a protector of the nobility and royalty) to the expeditions of the Hundred Years' War. They also provided escorts for the sovereign and great nobles on their journeys and their pilgrimages across the realm and overseas. Yeomen of the Crown were essentially agents of the king who were allowed to sit and dine with knights and squires of any lord's house or estate. At retirement they were offered tenure of stewardship of royal forests at the king’s choosing.

Later in Medieval history and through the Renaissance, the yeomanry shared attributes with both the upper and working classes, though they had little in common with today's urban middle class. The yeomanry was the first class of the commoners (peasants), in ancient Saxon days would be the equivalent to geneatas or villager. The ‘yeoman’ was more military and bound to the manor or estate, comparable to the radman or radcniht (radknight) who would provide escorts, deliver messages, erect fences for the hunt, and repair bridges. He would be given land (copyhold or sometimes freehold) by his lord for services well rendered. Many similarities exist between radmen/radknights and yeomen of the crown, as yeomen had many of the same tasks, though he was not as heavily imposed with the intense labor requirements as the radman/radknight had during his time.

[edit] Many duties throughout history

Duties of 'yeomen' were manifold from the Middle Ages through to the 19th Century. They were usually constables of their parish, and sometimes chief constables of the district, shire or hundred. Many 'yeomen' would hold status as bailiffs for the High Sheriff, or for the shire, or hundred. Other civic duties would include churchwarden, bridge warden, and other warden duties. It was also common for a 'yeoman' to be an overseer for their parishes.

‘Yeomen’, whether working for a lord, king, shire, knight, district or parish are noted for their civic duties as localized or municipal police forces raised by or led by the gentry. Some of these duties and mostly that of constable and bailiff would be carried down through family traditions. ‘Yeomen’ are seemingly in a role of ranging, roaming, surveying, and policing throughout their social history. In Chaucer's Canterbury Friar's Tale a ‘yeoman’ who is a bailiff of the forest who tricks the Summoner, and he turns out to be the devil ready to grant wishes already made.

In the early Middle English period (noted in the text Psuedo Cnut De Foresta Constitutiones written in the late eleventh century). The ‘yonger men’ chosen of liberi homini mediocre were to range or underkeep the royal forests and is the first known use of the word ‘yeoman’ being associated with the forests (both greenwood and royal or manorial hunting forests). The chief forester of such royal forests was stationed at the nearest castle and was also the constable of the castle with his deputy foresters or yeomen assisting in the maintenance and affairs of the royal forests.

The earlier word Franklin was the Yeoman's equivalent (a wealthy peasant landowner or freeholder or village official). Franklins in their days would typically be village leaders (aldermen), constables or mayors. Yeomen would find that status in the 14th Century as many of them became leaders, constables, sheriffs, justices of the peace, mayors and significant leaders of their country districts. It was too much, for even ‘valets’ known as ‘yeoman archers’ were forbidden to be returned to parliament, indicating they even held power at a level never before held by the upper class of commoners. The further away the district from gentry or burgesses, the more power a 'yeoman' held in office, as well attested in statutes during the reign of Henry VIII indicating yeomen along with knights and squires who have the leading of men to be in charge of certain functions.

A ‘yeoman’ could be equally comfortable working on his farm, educating himself from books, or enjoying country sports such as shooting and hunting. By contrast members of the landed gentry and the aristocracy did not farm their land themselves, but let it to tenant farmers. Yeomen in the Tudor and Stuart period could also be found leasing or renting lands to the minor gentry. However, ‘yeomen’ and ‘tenant farmers’ were the two main divisions of the rural middle class in traditional British society, and the yeoman was a respectable, honorable class and ranked above the husbandmen, artisans, and laborers.

Isaac Newton, as well many other famous people such as Thomas Jefferson hailed from the yeoman class of society. Isaac Newton inherited a small farm which paid the bills for his academic work. Many ‘yeoman’ fathers would have the means to send their sons to school to qualify to join the professions, and become classed as gentlemen. Many families of ‘yeoman’ status and established good standing would also have sons who would serve in the royal or great noble households providing not menial, but honorable service, as his social status or degree in society was equal in the royal or noble household.

The term also suggests someone upright, sturdy, honest and trustworthy, qualities attributed to the Yeomen of the Crown; and in the 13th Century the Yeomen of the Chamber were described as virtuous, cunning, skillful, courteous, and experts in archery chosen out of every great noble's house in England. The King's Yeoman or King's Valectus (Valetti) is the earliest usage in a recognizable form such as King's Yeman or King's Yoman. Possibly the concept is derived from King's Geneatas, meaning either companion or a follower of a king. In ancient times before the establishments of feudalism and manorialism, a ‘yeoman’ was a follower of a district (gau) chief or judice.

[edit] Comparable classes of people

The term is sometimes applied to people of similar status in other traditional societies. The ‘franklin’ is an example meaning a freeman and sometimes meaning a French or Norman freeholder. Franklin milites would basically be the equivalent of a ‘yeoman’ in the middle-ages and the ‘yeoman’ the equivalent of a ‘franklin’ in the late middle-ages.

The ‘yeoman’ belonged to a class or status of fighter (usually known as in the third order of the fighting class between that of a squire and a page). This status was very different from what was occurring on the continent in the days of feudalism where the gap between commoners and gentry was far wider causing much derision between the two classes in medieval society. Though a middling class existed on the continent, it was not well respected or held in such high-esteem as the ‘yeoman’ of England was during his time when the class existed.

This wide gulf between rich and poor could possibly explain why outlawry was common on the continent in comparison to England. Mostly outlawry in England was from troops returning to their lands and having lost them, or finding themselves unemployed. The large wealth gap between the rich and the poor was causing conditions and the plight of the poor to deteriorate rapidly to the point of hopelessness; not to mention the companies, or routiers, notoriously known during the Hundred Years War (both French and English) ravaging the countryside causing further devastation to an already devastated peasantry.

[edit] Other references to yeoman

  • Yeomanry Cavalry refers to the extra-judicial military force organized by the property-owning class to defend against French invasion in 18th-century England as well as to protect British occupation in 18th-century Ireland. Yeomanry Cavalry was officially formed in 1794 (formed unofficially circa. 1760s as a Volunteer Cavalry), it eventually became an expeditionary force known as the Imperial Yeomanry in 1899, and then was absorbed into the Territorial Army in 1907. Many units retain their 'Yeomanry' designation today and have seen service in both the World Wars and modern times, including the current "War on Terrorism". This contrasts with the title of Gentlemen Cavaliers of the Household Cavalry regiments.
  • Yeoman Riders of the Coursers Stables, Yeoman Riders of the Hunting Stables, Yeoman Riders of the Race and Running Horses, First Yeoman Rider, Second Yeoman Rider. (See British History Online.)
  • Yeoman Usher of the Black Rod is a deputy position to the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod and is the deputy sergeant-at-arms in the House of Lords. The position is an official figure in the parliaments of some Commonwealth countries.
  • There are several Yeoman positions in the staff of the Royal Household, under the Master of the Household.
  • In William Caxton's print of the Canterbury Tales there is a woodcut engraving of the knight's yeoman.
  • In the tabletop game of Warhammer, a yeoman is a leader of a footsoldier unit, and held positions in towns like the head gaoler or warden.
  • The Yeoman is the mascot for Yoe High School in Cameron, Texas.
  • University of Cambridge, and some other traditional universities, possess (or once possessed) an office by the name of the Yeoman Bedell, which originally consisted primarily of running errands, such as serving summons to appear in the University's courts. Largely the office has either been abolished as a medievealism, or retained in a purely ceremonial form. At the University of Sydney the office has been retained as the manager in charge of the University's caretaking and security services.
  • The sinister supporter of the arms of Wisconsin is a yeoman, though the figure incorrectly shown on the flag seems to be a miner, a miner's helmet not being mentioned in the blazon.
  • The sergeant flagman at Windsor Castle carries the title of 'Yeoman of the Round Tower'.

[edit] Further reading

  • Mildred Campbell - "The English Yeoman"

[edit] External links

Yeoman

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