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Image:Dot eu.png
Introduced 2005
TLD type Country code top-level domain
Status Active
Registry EURid
Sponsoring organization European Commission
Intended use Entities connected with the European Union
Actual use Becoming popular within the EU
Registration restrictions Registrants must be located within the EU
Structure Names are registered directly at second level
Documents Commission Regulation (EC) No. 874/2004
Dispute policies Is similar to UDRP
Web site EURid

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union, and organisations and citizens of EU member states, which was launched on December 7, 2005. Trademark owners were able to submit registrations through a sunrise process (similar to the launch of .info), in an effort to prevent cybersquatting. Full registration started on April 7, 2006.

The TLD is administered by EURid, a consortium consisting of the local ccTLD registry operators of Belgium, Czech Republic, Sweden and Italy.


[edit] Establishment and Sunrise period

The .eu TLD was approved by ICANN on March 22, 2005<ref name=approval>Template:Cite web</ref> and put in the Internet root zone on May 2, 2005.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Even though the EU is not a country (it is an intergovernmental and supranational organisation), there are precedents of issuing top-level domains to other entities—e.g. .nato

Registrants with prior rights (trademarks, geographic names, company names...) could apply during the Sunrise Period. The registration needed to be accompanied by documents proving the claim to ownership of a certain name. The decision was then made by PricewaterhouseCoopers Belgium, which had been chosen as the validation agent by EURid. Most companies were able to register their trademarks due to this process.

On February 7 2006, the registry was opened for company and trade names. In the first 15 minutes, there were 27,949 total applications, and after one hour, 71,235.

[edit] Landrush

On April 7, 2006 at 11 am CET registration became possible for non-trademark holders. Most people requesting domains had asked their registrars to put their requested domains in a queue, ensuring the best chance to register a domain. This way more than 700,000 domains were registered during the first 4 hours of operation. Some large registrars like Go Daddy and Dotster suffered from long queues and unresponsiveness, allowing people to 'beat the queue' by registering through a registrar that had already processed its queue. As of July 2006 more than 2 million .eu domain names were registered. It is now the third largest domain in Europe, after .de and .uk, and is the seventh largest internationally, catching up fast on .info.

Bob Parsons, CEO and co-founder of Go Daddy, criticized the landrush process designed by EURid. Particularly, he condemned the use of shell companies by some registrars. In his blog, he stated "These companies, instead of only registering their real active registrars, created hundreds of new "phantom" registrars."<ref name=landrush>Template:Cite web</ref> Parsons cited a group of about 400 companies, all with similar address and contact information based in New York, each registered as an LLC; in his opinion, these were phantom registrars "created to hijack the .EU landrush."

Patrik Lindén, spokeman for EURid, denied the allegations by Parsons, stating that "[EURid] verified that each registrar was an individual legal entity. Each had to sign an agreement with us, and prepay 10,000 euros."<ref name=refutation>Template:Cite web</ref> Parsons didn't dispute that each registrar was a separate legal entity, but noted that creating such entities was trivial: "Mr. Linden seemed proud that the EURid registry verified that each applicant was a legal entity before it was accredited. Take a moment and think about what that means. You can form a “legal entity” for $50 – an LLC – and you are good to go. Is that what we want a registry to do? Don’t we want them instead to make sure that the organization it allows to provide end-users with its domain names – especially Europe’s very own domain name – are actually in the domain name registration business?"<ref name=entity>Template:Cite web</ref>

The EURid organisation investigated allegations of abuse, and in July 2006 announced the suspension of 74,000 domain names and that they were suing 400 registrars for breach of contract.<ref>http://www.eurid.eu/en/general/news/eurid-suspends-74-000-eu-domain-names-due-to-breach-of-contract News item from EURid announcing suspension of domain names and intention to sue domain name registrars. Retrieved on 26 July 2006.</ref> The action relates to the practice of 'warehousing', whereby domain names are registered with the intention of subsequently selling them on to third parties. EURid rules state that applications for domains can only be made after a legitimate application has been made to a registrar. The 74,000 applications were made in the name of only three companies—Ovidio Ltd, Fausto Ltd and Gabino Ltd.

[edit] Use by the European Union institutions

The second-level domain .europa.eu has been reserved for EU institution sites, with most institutions making the switch from .eu.int to using .europa.eu domains on Europe day, 9 May 2006. Others such as the European Central Bank have switched to .eu.

[edit] References

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[edit] External links

Country code top-level domains
Active:  .ac  .ad  .ae  .af  .ag  .ai  .al  .am  .an  .ao  .aq  .ar  .as  .at  .au  .aw  .ax  .az  .ba  .bb  .bd  .be  .bf  .bg  .bh  .bi  .bj  .bm  .bn  .bo  .br  .bs  .bt  .bv  .bw  .by  .bz  .ca  .cc  .cd  .cf  .cg  .ch  .ci  .ck  .cl  .cm  .cn  .co  .cr  .cu  .cv  .cx  .cy  .cz  .de  .dj  .dk  .dm  .do  .dz  .ec  .ee  .eg  .er  .es  .et  .eu  .fi  .fj  .fk  .fm  .fo  .fr  .ga  .gd  .ge  .gf  .gg  .gh  .gi  .gl  .gm  .gn  .gp  .gq  .gr  .gs  .gt  .gu  .gw  .gy  .hk  .hm  .hn  .hr  .ht  .hu  .id  .ie  .il  .im  .in  .io  .iq  .ir  .is  .it  .je  .jm  .jo  .jp  .ke  .kg  .kh  .ki  .km  .kn  .kr  .kw  .ky  .kz  .la  .lb  .lc  .li  .lk  .lr  .ls  .lt  .lu  .lv  .ly  .ma  .mc  .md  .mg  .mh  .mk  .ml  .mm  .mn  .mo  .mp  .mq  .mr  .ms  .mt  .mu  .mv  .mw  .mx  .my  .mz  .na  .nc  .ne  .nf  .ng  .ni  .nl  .no  .np  .nr  .nu  .nz  .om  .pa  .pe  .pf  .pg  .ph  .pk  .pl  .pm  .pn  .pr  .ps  .pt  .pw  .py  .qa  .re  .ro  .ru  .rw  .sa  .sb  .sc  .sd  .se  .sg  .sh  .si  .sk  .sl  .sm  .sn  .sr  .st  .sv  .sy  .sz  .tc  .td  .tf  .tg  .th  .tj  .tk  .tl  .tm  .tn  .to  .tr  .tt  .tv  .tw  .tz  .ua  .ug  .uk  .us  .uy  .uz  .va  .vc  .ve  .vg  .vi  .vn  .vu  .wf  .ws  .ye  .yt  .yu  .za  .zm  .zw

Reserved/unassigned:  .eh  .kp  .me  .rs      Allocated/unused:  .bv  .gb  .sj .so  .um       Phaseout:  .su  .tp       Deleted/retired:  .cs  .dd  .zr

See also: Generic top-level domains

be:.eu bs:.eu bg:.eu ca:.eu cv:.eu cs:.eu da:.eu el:.eu es:.eu eo:.eu eu:.eu fr:.eu hy:.eu id:.eu it:.eu lv:.eu hu:.eu nl:.eu ja:.eu no:.eu pl:.eu pt:.eu ksh:.eu ro:.eu ru:.eu sq:.eu sr:.eu sh:.eu tg:.eu tr:.eu zh:.eu


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