Learn more about Liturgical year
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The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. Distinct liturgical colors may appear in connection with different seasons of the liturgical year. The dates of the festivals vary somewhat between the Western (Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant) churches and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, though the sequence and logic is the same.
 Moveable Feasts
- Main article: Moveable feast
In both the East and the West, the dates of many feasts vary from year to year, though in almost all cases this is due to the variation in the date of Easter, and all other dates follow from that. The extent to which the fasts and festivals are celebrated also varies between churches; in general Protestant churches observe far fewer of them than Catholic and Orthodox churches, and in particular are less likely to celebrate feasts of the Virgin Mary and the Saints.
 Liturgical cycle
The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their own mood, theological emphases, and modes of prayer, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, vestments for clergy, scriptural readings, themes for preaching and even different traditions and practices often observed personally or in the home. In churches that follow the liturgical year, the scripture passages for each Sunday (and even each day of the year in some traditions) are specified by a list called a lectionary. Following the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council in the 1960's, the adoption and use of lectionaries in Protestant churches increased. In particular, the growing influence of the Revised Common Lectionary led to a greater awareness of the Christian year among Protestants in the later decades of the twentieth century, especially among mainline denominations.
 Biblical Calendar
Biblical calendars are based on the cycle of the new moon. The year is from the first new moon on or after the spring equinox to the next new moon on or after the spring equinox, which means it has no set starting point like the modern calendar. Early in God's Word we are shown the basic formula for the calendar. "And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Gen. 1:14). "This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you" (Exo. 12:1-2). "This day came ye out in the month Abib" (Exo. 13:4). A month is one new moon to the next new moon. "And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another (month), and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD" (Isa. 66:23). "In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar" (Est. 3:7). The Biblical Calendar is layed out as follows, Nisan or Nissan (1st month) March-April, Iyar (2nd month) April-May, Sivan (3rd month) May-June, Tammuz (4th month) June-July, Av (5 month) July-August, Elul (6 month) August-September, Tishrei (7th month) September-October, Heshvan or Cheshvan (8th month) October-November, Kislev (9th month) November-December, Tevet (10th month) December-January, Shevat (11th month) January-February, Adar (12th month) February-March
 Western liturgical calendar
Western Christian liturgical calendars are based on the cycle of the Roman or Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, including Protestant calendars since this cycle pre-dates the Protestant Reformation. Generally, the liturgical seasons in western Christianity are Advent, Christmas, Ordinary Time (Time after Epiphany), Lent, Easter, and Ordinary Time (Time after Pentecost).
The first season of the liturgical year, beginning four Sundays before Christmas and ending on Christmas Eve. Historically observed as a "fast", its purpose focuses preparation for the coming Christ. Although often conceived as awaiting the coming of the Christ-child at Christmas, the modern lectionary points the season more toward eschatological themes--awaiting the final coming of Christ, when "the wolf shall live with the lamb" (Isaiah 11:6) and when God will have "brought down the powerful from their thrones, and lifted up the lowly" (The Magnificat, Luke 1:52)--particularly in the earlier half of the season. This period of waiting is often marked by the Advent Wreath, a garland of evergreens with 4 candles. Although the main symbolism of the advent wreath is simply marking the progression of time, many churches attach themes to each candle, most often 'hope', 'faith', 'joy', and 'love'.
Color: Violet, or in some traditions Blue. On the third Sunday of Advent, also called Gaudete Sunday, Rose/Pink is used in some places.
Although the Roman Catholic rite omits the "Gloria in Excelsis" in Mass of the season (as opposed to Mass of a feast), the "Alleluia" remains (although the pre-Vatican II rite had no "Alleluia" in Mass of the season other than on Sunday).
Christmastide begins on the evening of Christmas Eve (December 24) and ends on the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. Christmas Day itself is December 25. The 12-day length of the Christmas season gives rise to "The Twelve Days of Christmas"; despite what retailers and the media might have one believe, the Twelve Days begin on Christmas Day, instead of ending on it.
The Roman Catholic calendar has the Christmas liturgical season continuing to the feast of the Baptism of Our Lord (the old octave day of Epiphany), which in pre-Vatican II calendar was fixed on January 13. Color: White or Gold.
 Ordinary Time ("Time after Epiphany" and "Septuagesima")
"Ordinary" comes from the same root as our word "ordinal", and in this sense means "the counted weeks". In the Roman Catholic Church and in some Protestant traditions, these are the common weeks which do not belong to a proper season. It consists of either 33 or 34 Sundays, depending on the year. In the modern Roman rite, the first portion of Ordinary Time extends from the day following the Feast of the Baptism of Christ until the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent). This first installment has anywhere from three to eight Sundays, depending on how early or late Easter falls in a given year. In other rites, including Protestant ones, Ordinary Time may start as early as the day after Epiphany or as late as the day after Candlemas.
The terminology of "Ordinary Time" replaces the older language of the Seasons of "Time After Epiphany" and "Septuagesima" (pre-Lenten season), which are still in use by traditional Catholics and other Catholics who attend the ancient, pre-Vatican II Mass known as the Tridentine Rite. Some Protestant rites also use the older terminology.
In the older Roman rite, the Time after Epiphany could have anywhere from one to six Sundays, with Septuagesima as a 17-day season beginning nine Sundays before Easter and ending on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday. Any omitted Sundays after Epiphany are transferred to the time after Pentecost and celebrated between the Twenty-Third Sunday and the Last Sunday. If, however, there are not enough Sundays in the year to accommodate all such Sundays, then the one which would otherwise occur on Septuagesima Sunday is celebrated on the previous day (Saturday); in the case of Easter falling so late that there were only 23 Sundays After Pentecost, the Mass for 23rd Sunday was celebrated on the day before the Last Sunday After Pentecost. The 1962 reform changed this, instead dropping the displaced Sunday Mass for that year. During Septuagesima, certain customs of Lent are adopted, including the suppression of the "Alleluja" and, on Sundays, the Gloria, and the vestments are violet.
 Lent and Passiontide
Lent is a major fast taken by the Church to prepare for Easter. It begins on Ash Wednesday and ends at the beginning of the Easter Vigil, at the conclusion of Holy Week. There are forty days of Lent, counting from Ash Wednesday through the Easter Triduum, but not including Sundays. The final week of Lent is known as Holy Week, which begins on Palm Sunday. The final three days of Lent are known as the Easter Triduum.
Before the 1970 reforms, the last two weeks of Lent in the Catholic Church were known as Passiontide. During this season, the Gloria Patri is suppressed except after the Psalms in the Divine Office, the readings begin to focus even more on the Passion of Christ, and, most noticeably, the crucifixes and images of the saints are covered with violet cloth. On the Friday before Good Friday is the Feast of the Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Should the Feasts of St. Joseph or the Annunciation fall during Holy Week, they are transferred to the week following Easter.
Color: Violet. In some traditions, Rose may be used on the 4th Sunday of Lent, called Laetare Sunday.
The Easter Triduum consists of:
- Holy Thursday or Maundy Thursday
- at the evening worship service or Mass of the Lord's Supper
- some churches who celebrate this day as Maundy Thursday engage in the ritual of ceremonial footwashing.
- Color: White.
- Good Friday
- the celebration of His passion
- Color: Varies: No color, Red, or Black are used in different traditions. (Where colored hangings are removed for this day, liturgical color applies to vestments only.)
- In the Roman Catholic rite, a crucifix (not necessarily the one which stands on or near the altar on other days of the year) is ceremoniously unveiled. (And in pre-Vatican II, other crucifixes were to be unveiled, without ceremony, after the Good Friday service.)
- Holy Saturday
- commemoration of the day Christ lay in the Tomb
- Color: None
- Easter Vigil
- held after sunset of Holy Saturday, or before dawn on Easter Day, in anticipation of the celebration of the resurrection.
See also Paschal candle
- Color: White, often together with Gold.
- In pre-Vatican II Roman Catholic rite, during the "Gloria in Excelsis" at the Mass, the organ and bells are used in the liturgy for the first time in 2 days, and the statues, which have been veiled during Passion time, are unveiled.
- held after sunset of Holy Saturday, or before dawn on Easter Day, in anticipation of the celebration of the resurrection.
The date of Easter varies from year to year, but is set to be close to the date of Jesus' resurrection, which the holiday recognizes. The Easter season extends from the Easter Vigil through Pentecost Sunday on the Catholic and Protestant calendars. On the calendar used by traditional Catholics, Eastertide lasts until the end of the Octave of Pentecost, at None of the following Ember Saturday.
The Easter octave allows for no other feasts to be celebrated or commemorated during it (possible exception is the Greater Litanies if Easter falls late enough). If Easter is so early that March 25 falls in Easter week, Annunciation feast is postponed to the following week.
Ascension is the fourtieth day of Easter, always a Thursday. Pentecost is the fiftieth.
Color: White or Gold, except on Pentecost, on which the color is Red.
 Ordinary Time ("Time after Pentecost" and "Kingdomtide")
Ordinary Time resumes after the Easter Season, on Pentecost Monday, and ends on the Saturday before the First Sunday of Advent. Before the Roman liturgical calendar was reformed at the Second Vatican Council, the Sundays in this part of the year were listed as "Sundays after Pentecost" by Roman Catholics; the Eastern Orthodox and some Protestants still adhere to this terminology. The first Sunday after Pentecost is Trinity Sunday and in many traditions the last Sunday of Ordinary Time is the Feast of Christ the King.
Variations during this season include:
- In the traditional Catholic calendar, Christ the King is the last Sunday in October rather than the final Sunday before Advent.
- In the Catholic and some Anglican traditions the feast of Corpus Christi occurs eleven days after Pentecost.
- Most Western traditions celebrate All Saints' Day on November 1st or the Sunday following. The liturgical color is White.
- Some traditions celebrate St. Michael's Day (Michaelmas) on September 29th.
- Some traditions celebrate St. Martin's Day (Martinmas) on November 11th.
- In some Protestant traditions, especially those with closer ties to the Lutheran tradition, Reformation Sunday is celebrated on the Sunday preceding October 31st, commemorating the purported day Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenburg. The liturgical color is Red, celebrating the Holy Spirit's continuing work in renewing the Church.
- Many traditions treat the final few weeks of Ordinary Time as having a distinctive focus on the coming of the Kingdom of God (so that the liturgical year turns full circle by anticipating one of the predominant themes of Advent). In the Roman Rite, the final three Sundays have such an eschatological theme, though without any change in designation for those Sundays. Some other denominations, however, change the designation and sometimes also the liturgical colour. For example, the Church of England uses the term "Sundays before Advent" for the final four Sundays and permits red vestments as an alternative. The term "Kingdomtide" is used by a number of denominations, among them the United Methodist Church and the Christian Church - Synod of Saint Timothy. In the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS), this is known as the "Period of End Times," and red vestments are worn on the first and second Sundays.
 Assumption of Mary (Roman Catholic)
August 15th. On this date, which is the same as the Eastern tradition of the Dormition, the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven is celebrated. This feast day is perhaps the oldest feast day in the Christian Church, being celebrated in both the East and the West. The teaching on this feast was dogmatically defined on November 1, 1950 by Pope Pius XII in the Papal Bull, Munificentissimus Deus.
Many Protestant churches recognize a liturgical year, including Anglicans/Episcopalians, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, the Reformed churches, and the United/Uniting churches (the United Church of Christ [USA], the United Church of Canada, and the Uniting Church in Australia).
Some Protestant churches label the seasons outside of the two festival cycles (Advent-Christmas-Epiphany Day and Lent-Easter-Pentecost Day) "Ordinary Time" like the current Roman Catholic calendar. In the United States, this includes the Presbyterian Church (USA) and the United Church of Christ; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America has proposed switching to this terminology as well. In other Protestant churches, these seasons retain their pre-Vatican II names of "Season after Epiphany" and "Season after Pentecost".
Certain minor differences exist between the Roman Catholic liturgical year and the Protestant one, but these differences vary among the different Protestant churches. Generally speaking, the Anglican/Episcopal churches have retained many of the minor festivals and commemorations, as have Lutheran churches to a lesser extent. Most other Protestant churches only observe the major seasons, although the 'ordinary time' lesser festivals of All Saints Day (November 1) and Christ the King (last Sunday of liturgical year) are observed by many. Churches in the Lutheran tradition, as well as some in the Reformed tradition, also observe Reformation Day on October 31st or its preceding Sunday.
 Eastern Orthodox Church
In a few, predominantly Eastern Orthodox, nations, religious holidays are celebrated on the corresponding day in the Julian Calendar. From 1900 until 2100, there is a thirteen-day difference between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar, which is used in most of the world as well as in Eastern Orthodox countries for civil purposes. Thus, for example, Christmas is celebrated on January 7 in these countries. The computation of the day of Easter is, however, completely different between the two calendars and does not differ in any straightforward way.
The Liturgical year in the Eastern Orthodox Church is characterized by alternating fasts and feasts, and is in many ways similar to the Roman Catholic year described above. However it is traditionally held to begin on September 1, not on the first Sunday of Advent. It includes the 12 Great Feasts, plus Pascha (Easter) itself, the Feast of Feasts. These feasts generally mark various significant events in the lives of Jesus Christ and of the Virgin Mary (Theotokos). Winter Lent is one name for the extended fast leading up to the Feast of the Nativity of Jesus Christ (Christmas). Great Lent is the extended fast leading up to Holy Week and Pascha. Other times are especially set aside as well. Two other extended fasts are the Apostles' Fast, generally about one to two weeks leading up to the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, and the fast leading up to the Dormition of the Theotokos, which is for the two weeks prior to that feast, from August 1 to August 14.
 The twelve Great Feasts
- The Nativity of the Theotokos (September 8)
- The Elevation of the Cross (September 14)
- the rediscovery of the original Cross on which Christ was crucified
- Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple (November 21)
- the entry of the Theotokos into the Temple around the age of 3
- Nativity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (December 25)
- Theophany (January 6)
- the baptism of Jesus Christ, Christ's blessing of the water, and the revealing of Christ as God
- Presentation of Our Lord in the Temple (February 2)
- Annunciation of the Theotokos (March 25)
- Gabriel's announcement to the Theotokos that she will conceive the Christ, and her "Yes"
- Entry into Jerusalem (Sunday before Pascha)
- known in the West as Palm Sunday.
- Ascension (40 days after Pascha)
- Christ's ascension into Heaven following his resurrection.
- Pentecost (50 days after Pascha)
- Transfiguration of Our Lord (August 6)
- Christ's Transfiguration as witnessed by Peter, James and John.
- Dormition of the Theotokos (August 15)
 Secular Observance
Because of the dominance of Christianity in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, many features of the Christian year became incorporated into the secular calendar. Many of its feasts remain holidays, and are now celebrated by people of all faiths and none — in some cases worldwide. The secular celebrations bear varying degrees of likeness to the religious feasts from which they derived, often also including elements of ritual from pagan festivals of similar date.
- Stookey, L.H. Calendar: Christ's Time for the Church, 1996. ISBN 0-687-01136-1
- Hickman, Hoyt L., et al. Handbook of the Christian Year, 1986. ISBN 0-687-16575-X
 See also
- Calendar of saints
- Christian worship
- Computus - computing the date of Easter
- Eastern Orthodox Church calendar
- Roman Catholic calendar of saints
- Gregorian calendar
- Julian calendar
 External links
- The Christian Calendar — Christian Seasons Calendar: based on liturgical seasons rather than secular 12 months.
- Universalis — A liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church including the liturgy of the hours and the mass readings.
- Biblical Days — The Biblical Days and ordained Festivals of God as recorded in the Scriptures.ca:Any litúrgic