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The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. In northern Italy they founded a state, the Kingdom of the Lombards, which was eventually absorbed by the Carolingian Empire (see Kingdom of Italy). Much of their history and culture was recorded by the historian Paul the Deacon. They gave their name to the region Lombardy.


[edit] Lombard traditions

Their own traditions (preserved in the Origo Gentis Langobardorum) describe how they were formerly called Winnili, and how they left Scandinavia under the leaders Ybor<ref>*Eburaz, meaning "boar", and the same name as Eofor, see Proto-Germanic and Proto-Norse personal names</ref> and Agio<ref>*Agjō, meaning "point" (as in spear/sword point) see Proto-Germanic and Proto-Norse personal names</ref>. They came to the part called Scoringa<ref>Scoringa, according to Miillenhoff's explanation in which Bluhme concurs, is "Shoreland" (see Schmidt, 43). Bluhme considers it identical with the later Bardengau, on the left bank of the lower Elbe where the town of Bardowick, twenty-four miles southeast of Hamburg, perpetuates the name of the Lombards even down to the present time. Hammerstein (Bardengau, 56) explains Scoringa as Schieringen near Bleckede in the same region. Schmidt (43) believes that the settlement in Scoringa has a historical basis and certainly, if the name indicates the territory in question, it is the place where the Lombards are first found in authentic history.[1]</ref> where they stayed for several years. For at that time Ambri and Assi, chiefs of the Vandals, harried all the provinces in the vicinity with war, and puffed up with pride over the many victories they had won, they sent a message to the Winnili that they should either pay taxes to the Vandals, or else make ready for war. Then Ybor and Agio agreed, on the admonition of their mother, Gambara, that it were better to defend their freedom by arms than to mar it by paying taxes. and they sent messengers to the Vandals to tell them that they would rather fight than become thralls. At that time all the Winnili were in the flowering of youth, but only few in number, for they had made out only one third of the population of Scandinavia. The Vandals went to Godan (= Odin) and asked for victory over the Winnili, and that he answered that he would give victory to the party he would see first when the sun rose.

Then Gambara had visited Godan's wife Frea (= Frigga) and had asked for victory for the Vinnili, and Frea had advised her that the women of the Winnili should let down their hair and arrange it around the face so that it would look like beards, and come early in the morning together with the men and stand on the spot where Godan used to look first, when he saw the rising sun.

And thus it happened. But when Godan saw them at sunup, he said "who are these longbeards?" Frea had answered that to those whom he had given a name he must also give victory, and Godan had let the Lombards win. In tribute to this event, the Winnili changed their name to Lombards.

Jordanes recorded in the 6th century a tribe named Vinovilith, which still remained in Scandza (Scandinavia).

Lombardic migration

[edit] Lombards in archaeology and history

The Lombards were first recorded by the Romans in 5 AD, during the Germanic campaigns of Tiberius. They were then located on the lower Elbe River (North Germany) and are described by the Roman historian Velleius Paterculus (II, 106), who accompanied one of the expeditions of Tiberius as Prefect of Cavalry, as "more fierce than ordinary German savagery". It is certain that the Lombards took up arms (with many other Germanic tribes) against the Romans, because Paterculus also mentions their subsequent defeat by the Romans. The next historian who mentions them is Tacitus, writing about 98 AD; he also located them on the lower Elbe River. Tacitus counts the Lombards as a tribe among the Suevi closely related to the Semnoni. He describes the character of the Lombards thus:

What, on the contrary, ennobles the Lombards is the smallness of their number, for they, who are surrounded with very many and very powerful nations, derive their security from no obsequiousness or plying, but by dint of battle and adventurous deeds. (Germania)

These historical citations, the archaeological finds of countless burial places, and characteristic pottery (that later appears in the further migration zones of the Lombards) suggest that they were indeed located on the lower Elbe River at this time [as stated in the works of Dr. Eckart Frey].

About seventy years after Tacitus' Germania, the Lombards are mentioned again, this time as a fierce warband in the Marcomanni confederation under King Marbod. The Marcomannic Wars gave the Lombards a reputation, an inside look at foreign lands, new military tactics and, most of all, stolen goods. Lombards remained at the lower Elbe River till the second half of the fourth century AD, but the migration of the Lombards towards the south began in the early third century.[citation needed] The Lombards migrated up the Elbe River and, in addition to their Lower Elbe lands, they settled what is today the Altmark. The Lombards had completely left the Lower Elbe land by the second half of the fourth century.

Thenceforward the history of the Lombards is unknown. It is assumed that the Lombards did not become vassals of the Huns and maintained their "independence"; furthermore, it was in the second half of the fourth century that the Lombards were Christianised by Arian monks. Several names of Lombard leaders during this period are known: Lethuc, Hildeoc, Godeoc and Claffo. Modern historians[citation needed] are almost certain that by the end of the fifth century the Lombards settled in modern day Saxony and Bohemia, following the course of the Elbe.

In 493 the Lombards appeared on the map again, settling the former lands of the Rugii in ancient Noricum (modern day Lower Austria). This was the first time that the Lombards entered a territory that was marked by Roman culture. The Lombards were now a large tribe, which can only lead to the conclusion that various Germanic tribes joined the Lombards (whether peaceably or by force) during their migration period.

Having arrived in Noricum, the Lombards were terrorised by their mighty Germanic neighbours the Heruli, who created a kingdom on the Theiss and March rivers. During the migrational period, the Lombards had already begun to change their tribal organisation to one led by groups of dukes and counts who commanded bands of warriors bound by kinship , and who in turn were loosely controlled by an acclaimed king. This structure gave birth to the first Lombard dynasty, the Lethingen. In 490 AD a new Lombard king emerged, Tato. Tato's life mission was to defeat and conquer the Heruli. Rudolf, king of the Heruli, provoked Tato with degrading remarks. In response, Tato raised a Lombardic army and defeated and destroyed the Herulic kingdom in 510 AD. Rudolf was killed, and Lombard power over Pannonia was established. The remaining Heruli joined the Lombards, but a minority fled to the Gepidae. Tato was killed by his nephew Wacho shortly after (510), who proclaimed himself king. In some thirty years of his rule, Wacho established alliances and marriages amongst other Germanic dynasties and opened talks with Byzantium.

With the death of Wacho around 540, the Lethingen dynasty died out and was replaced by the Gausian dynasty. Audoin became king of the Lombards. In order to persuade the Lombards to act as foederati in the Gothic War, Justinian offered Audoin lands in Pannonia. The Lombards than migrated to Pannonia, provoking a rivalry with the Gepids in which Audoin's son Alboin prevailed in battle. The Lombard foederati fought in Italy against the Ostrogoths in the army of Narses and in the east against the Persians for the Byzantine emperor. The Byzantines promised the Lombards land in Italy for their services, however, the Byzantines let the Lombards down when the Lombards wanted to defeat the Avars, who had begun to push into Pannonia. Byzantium was not interested in a war against the Avars, so Alboin, who followed his father to the throne, made peace with the Avars. Alboin raised a Lombardic army composed of veterans of the Gothic and Persian wars and overran the Gepid kingdom in 567. Kunimund, the last Gepid king, was killed, and Alboin retained his skull as a trophy. Alboin forcibly married Rosamunde, the daughter of Kunimund, and the remaining Gepids joined the Lombards. In 568 the Lombards and the Gepids, under the rule of Alboin, moved out of the Balkans and crossed the Alps into Italy to claim their territory.

A 7th century decorated Lombardic sword found in the Castelseprio necropolis, Lombardy
The Lombardic Disc of Cividale del Friuli depicting a Lombard warrior
The Cross of Agilulf
The helmet plate of Agilulf
Lombard fibula from Cividale del Friuli
Lombard fibula, from the Trosino necropolis, Duchy of Spoleto

[edit] The Conquest of the Italian peninsula

The conquest began when Alboin and his Lombards crossed the Julian Alps in the northeast. That episode is generally seen as the last act of the Great Migration in Europe. It is estimated that Alboin crossed the Alps with more than 250,000 people: Lombards, Heruli and Gepids. When Alboin crossed the Alps, damage to urban fortifications from the Gothic war was still visible, which enabled Alboin to conquer many of the northern cities with little effort. The first important city to fall was Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli), in northeastern Italy, in 569. There, Alboin created the first Lombard duchy, which he entrusted to his nephew Gisulf. He took Milan that September. The Byzantine forces withdrew to the line Padova-Mantova, to protect Ravenna, the residence of the Exarch. The Catholic bishops of Milan and Aquilea fled to Grado and Genoa.

Alboin left Gisulf in charge of his own garrison in Friuli. Pavia finally fell in 572, after a long and powerful resistance. Alboin was so impressed that he made that city the capital of the Lombard kingdom. In the same year Alboin was murdered in Verona, in a conspiracy involving his wife Rosamunde and several Gepid and Lombard warriors. The Lombard warriors however, forced Rosamunde and her accomplices to flee to Byzantine protection in Ravenna.

Later that year, Cleph was acclaimed the new king of the Lombards. Cleph extended the Lombard kingdom by completely conquering Tuscany and closing on Ravenna. Cleph was murdered in 574.

The kingdom of the Lombards, called by Romans Regnum Langobardorum and by the Lombards themselves simply Langbardaland, was in need of a uniform law, in order that the Germanic peoples (Lombards, Gepids, and Heruli), that entered Italy under Alboin, would become one. The laws however didn't secure their political unity. The territorial splits of the duchies, caused by individual factions of the Garnisons, restrained the consolidations of the king.

In 570 Faroald and Zotto conquered lands of the central and southern Apennines creating the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, which was ruled by Faroald, and the Duchy of Benevento which was ruled by Zotto. These duchies were geographically cut off from the kingdom by the Byzantine territories that ranged from Adriatic to Tyrrhenian Seas, which caused further problems in the unity of the Lombards.

The Lombard Kingdom was threatened by a Frankish-Byzantine pact against them, so the Dukes chose Authari son of Cleph as their new king in 584. On 15 May 589, he married Theodelinda, the daughter of Garibald I, Duke of Bavaria, and a Catholic. Authari managed to defeat the Franks in 588 and stopped their attempted invasion.

Authari's successor was Agilulf, Duke of Turin. Agilulf also married the Catholic Theodelinda in 591. Agilulf is considered one of the most barbaric kings of the Lombards. He conquered many Umbrian cities and took part in many campaigns outside the kingdom, fighting the Slavs in Bohemia and the Avars in the Balkans, and repeatedly defeating Avar raids in Friuli. He maintained good terms with the Bavarians and, although being married to a Catholic, he remained Arian and was an influential Arian king among the Lombards. It is said[citation needed] that Paganism died out under Agilulf and the Lombards became entirely Christian (Arian Christan). After his death in 616, Authari was succeeded by his son Adaloald and than by Arioald. Two unimportant kings, who mostly dealt with minor internal conflicts.

In 636 AD a very energetic king emerged, Rothari. He was Duke of Brescia and murdered many unpleasant nobleman and ruled the kingdom with iron discipline. He conquered Genoa and, by 643, all of Liguria. According to Paul the Deacon, "Rothari then captured all the cities of the Romans which were situated upon the shore of the sea from the city of Luna in Tuscany up to the boundaries of the Franks." (IV,xlv) With these quick conquests, he left the Byzantines with only the Ravennan marshes in northern Italy. The Byzantines tried to regain territory but were crushed by Rothari and his army at the Battle of Modena.

Rothari wrote the Edictum Rothari which was approved by a gairethinx in 643. His son Rodoald followed him to the throne, but was murdered after just six months in 653. His successor was Aripert I. Aripert son of Gundoald was the first Catholic Lombard king. Arianism was already in decline amongst the Lombard people, due to the slow but steady assimilation process with the Roman people of Italy. When Aripert I came to power, the rivalry between the Roman Catholics and the Lombard Arians was almost non-existent. Even the Arian bishop of Pavia became Catholic.

In 661, the kingdom fell to the sons of Aripert, Godepert and Perctarit. Godepert and Perctarit divided it between themselves and resided in Pavia and Milan. The Conflict that erupted between the two brothers was immediately used by Duke Grimuald of Benevento. Grimuald rode to Pavia with his guards and removed Godepert and forced Perctarit to flee the Kingdom.

In 662, Grimuald proclaimed himself King and ruled by the sword. He brutally forced all Lombard duchies of the Kingdom under his control. He installed his personal Lombard warband from the Benevento in the Kingdom. Called the Saviour of the Kingdom and the Lombards, he defeated the Franks in the North West, the Slavs in the North East and the Byzantines in the South.

Grimauald defeated an Army of Frank invaders in the Piedmont and allowed all of the Frank prisoners to be butchered. He than smashed an uprising of the Lombard duke, Lupus of Friuli with utmost brutality. He paid Avar mercenaries to devastate Friuli. He found out that Arnefrit, the son of Lupus raised an army and acquired Slavic allies. Grimuald tracked him down at once and defeated him at the Battle of Nimis. Arnefrit was killed in the Battle. The remaining Slavic allies were beheaded, their heads were than (outside of Nimis) stuck on poles.

Grimuald installed Wechthari as duke of Friuli. Slavic tribes later tried to invade the Friuli, but were brutally butchered by Grimuald and Wechthari. In the south, the Byzantine Emperor Constans II. besieged Benevento. Grimuald personally led an army of Lombards, and defeated Emperor Constans II. at Benevento. Romuald was the Lombard that was besiegd by the Byzantines and liberated by Grimuald in Benevento. Romuald than raised his on army and conquered Taranto and Brindisi, two Byzantine strongholds in southern Italy. Grimoald and his army conquered Forli. Forli was a stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna. Grimuald in his typical Barbarian Arian custom, let many citizens be butchered. On Easter Day. His barbaric and blood thirsty nature gave Grimuald a very negative image, but he was a respected Lombard "general".

Grimoald I died in 671 and his son Garibald succeeded him. Garibald's reign came to a sudden end when Perctarit (son of Aripert) returned from exile and besieged Garibald. Garibald was removed and Perctarit became King in the same year 671. Perctarit tried to abolish Arian Christianity once and for all and made Catholicism the official religion. Perctarit also improved the relation towards Byzantium. However, many Arian Lombards despised his new policies, and a rebellion broke out centred around Alagis Duke of Trent, who also lead the plot that lead to the assassination of Perctarit

In 688, Cunipert, Garibald's son, took the throne. Alagis, the Arian duke of Trent continued to rebel and overthrew Cunipert. Cunipert fled to a deserted island in Lake Como. Alagis ruled tyrannically, and the Catholic Romans and Lombards of the Piedmont swore loyalty to Cunipert. In 689, Cunipert led this Catholic Faction into battle against Alagis and his Rebel Army at the Battle of Coronate in Lombardy. Cunipert won the Battle and killed Alagis. Cunipert's crown was restored in 689. The Arians tried one more Uprising under Ausfrid of Friuli, but failed.

Cunipert died in 700. He was succeeded by Liutpert,Raginpert and Aripert II all of these reigns ended in 712. When the old Ansprand returned from Bavarian exile with an Bavarian and Venetian army to dispose Aripert II. Aripert II drowned in the Ticino. Ansprand didn't rule long, he was old and wanted to secure the throne for his son, Ansprand, who died in 712.

Ansprand's successor was his son Liutprand who reigned from 712 to 744. He is remembered as the king who defeated and expelled the Byzantines. He conquered Bologna, Osimo, Rimini, and Ancona, along with the other cities of Emilia and the Pentapolis. In 736 Charles Martel called Liutprand for help. Liutprand and his army helped to re-conquer several French cities from the Arabs in 736. He donated Land to the Pope and died in 744 AD. He was buried in the church San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, in Pavia.

Liutprand was considered a great King who outshone his successors. He was followed by Hildeprand, known as Hildeprand the Useless, who was crowned King in 744 and removed as king in 744. He died months later. He was succeeded by Ratchis. Ratchis was the first Lombard King with a Roman wife. The previous dynasty had died off, and so the highest ranked Duke of the North became King of the Lombards, in this case it was Ratchis. Ratchis was not a brilliant King nor General. Ratchis' reign was marked by his efforts to ally the Papacy and the Lombard Kingdom. Ratchis was unpopular with Lombard dukes and was removed from power. Ratchis entered the Abbey of Montecassino.

Ratchis' brother Aistulf was crowned King in 749. Aistulf was different from his Brother, and wanted to conquer the remaining territory of the Italian peninsula. He finally conquered Ravenna in 751, and stood at the gates of Rome. The Pope called the Franks for help, and Pippin the Short crossed the Alps. He was the third Frank that crossed the Alps in hopes of defeating the Lombards. He did so, and returned the conquered Lands of Aistulf to the Pope. Aistulf remained king and the Kingdom was still intact. This was the first defeat at the hands of the Franks. Aistulf died 756.

Ratchis, King of the Lombards

[edit] The Last King

When Aistulf died in 756 AD, Desiderius Duke of Tuscany succeeded him. Ratchis, brother of Aistulf and king of the Lombards from 744 AD - 749 AD opposed this move. He raised a rebellion and threatened Desiderius. Desiderius allied with Pope Stephen II. The Revolt of Ratchis was crushed.

Desiderius promised Pope Stephen II to return various towns back to the Holy See. Desiderius was a talented general, and faced several revolts in the time of his reign. He successfully put down every revolt.

Stephen III opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter, probably named Gerperga, in 768, but by his death in 772, he had made peace with the Lombards. The new pope, Adrian I, however, implored the aid of Charlemagne against him, and the marriage of dynasties was dissolved by Charlemagne's repudiation of Gerperga in 771. Charles sent her back to her father.

Gerberga, the widow of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, sought the protection of the Lombard king after her husband's death in 771; and — probably in return for the slight cast upon his daughter — Desiderius recognised Gerberga's sons as lawful heirs, and attacked Pope Adrian for refusing to crown them kings and invaded the Pentapolis. The embassies of Adrian and Desiderius met at Thionville and Charlemagne favoured the pope's case.

Charlemagne led his Frankish troops over the Alps in 773 AD, and besieged Pavia. Because of further revolts, the Lombardic warbands were almost non-existent. The siege lasted until 774 AD. Defeated, Desiderius was exiled to an Abbey. Charlemagne took the title Rex Langobardorum, the first time a Germanic king adopted the title of a kingdom he had conquered. Only the Lombard Duchy of Benevento was still independent.

[edit] The Legacy and Heritage

Lombardy the region in Italy, which includes the cities of Brescia, Bergamo ,Milan, the old capital Pavia and cities like Crema and Sondrio which were founded by the Lombards, is a reminder of the presence of the Lombards.

Lombardic Christian Church Decorations, Pomposa Italy - 1st window
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations, Pomposa Italy - 2nd window
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations

[edit] Lombardic Arianism

The Lombards were devoted Nordic Pagans, their Origins are based on the Myth and Mercy of Godan (=Odin) and his wife Frea (=Frigga). The Lombards remained pagan until the 4th Century AD, when they were Christianised by Arian Monks of the Gothic Volk, during their Migration Period from the Lower Elbe lands to Noricum. Many, however remained Pagan only a handful of Lombard war chiefs and their followers had really been Christianised by 493 AD. It is uncertain, when the Lombards had their first Christian king. By 568 AD, when the Lombards conquered the Italic Peninsula, most of the Lombards were still Pagan, although most the Nobility and the King were, Arian Christians. Faroald I, the conqueror and first Duke of the Duchy of Spoleto remained pagan, until he had a Devine moment during a Battle and became a Christian. It is believed and said that under the rule of Agilulf from 590 AD - 615 AD, that all of the Lombard Volk became Christians.

Because of the long pagan history of the Lombards and their loose Arian Christian church, the Christianity of the Lombards was always Pagan influenced. The Lombards had build several churches in Italy, and decorated them in the unique style of Lombard Arian Christianity. The Lombards incorporated a lot of Pagan (animalistic and botanic) imagery, amongst the sacred images and sacred crosses. The Lombards always had a Botanic Plant of some sort, that many interpret as the Irminsul. This "plant" is depicted in almost every sacred Lombard relief. Like th Abbey of Pomposa, before it became an Abbey in the 11th Century AD, it was a church that was founded in the 6th Century AD. It remained Byzantine until the 7th Century AD when it became Lombard. The Arian Christians took the church and left behind two window decorations that show the pagan influence of the Arian Christian Lombard church, these window decorations clearly depict the irminsul with each two birds, it is speculated that they depict the two ravens of Godan. The Lombards resisted Catholicism for a long time and even defending their Arian Church with revolts and wars. The change from Arianism to Catholicism came with the isolation of Arianism. In the 5th and 6th Century AD, many Germanic Volks (Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, Lombards, Gepids, Sciri, Rugi and Heruli) were Arians, and possessed powerful and large Kingdoms. But in 7th Century AD, only the Lombards remained Arian. In Italy, one can clearly see how the Arian Christian Church differed from one another. On one side, there are the beautiful, warm and richly decorated Arian Churches of the Ostrogoths and on the other side there are the fairly plain, cold, dark and grey Arian Churches of the Lombards.

Their good relations with the Catholic Bavarians and their hostile relations with the Holy See and the Catholic Franks caused the downfall of Lombardic Arianism forever. The Lombards followed their Kings and began to become Catholics in the 8th Century AD. The most Famous example is Paul Warnefried also Paul the Deacon, who was a Catholic Lombard monk in the 8th. Century AD.

[edit] Lombard states after the kingdom

Though the kingdom, centred on Pavia in the north, fell to Charlemagne, the Lombard-controlled territory to the south of the Papal States was never subjugated by Charlemagne or his descendants. In 774, Duke Arechis II of Benevento, whose duchy had only nominally been under royal authority, though certain kings had been effective at making their power known in the south, declared himself princeps, or prince, effectually independent. He tried to claim the kingship, but with no support and no chance of a coronation in Pavia. Charlemagne came down with an army, and his son Louis the Pious sent many, to force the Beneventan dukes to submit, but their submission and promises were never kept and they were de facto independent. In 839, Duke Sicard was murdered by Radelchis, who seized the dukeship. Sicard's brother Siconulf was declared prince in Salerno and a ten year civil war erupted, settled only by Emperor Louis II's permanent division of the principality. There were then two Lombard states in the Mezzogiorno.

The independent state at Salerno inspired the gastalds of Capua, under Landulf the Old, to move towards independence and, by the end of the century, they were styling themselves "prince" and there was a third Lombard state. The Capuan and Beneventan states were united by conquest in 910 and only separated in 982, on the death of Pandulf Ironhead. The diminished Beneventan principality soon lost its independence to the papacy and declined in importance until it was gobbled up by the Normans, who, first called in by the Lombards to fight the Byzantines for control of Apulia and Calabria (under the likes of Melus of Bari and Arduin, among others), had become rivals for hegemony in the south. The Salernitan principality experienced a golden age under Guaimar III and Guaimar IV, but under Gisulf II, the principality shrunk to insignificance and fell in 1078 to the Robert Guiscard, who had married Gisulf's sister Sichelgaita. The Capua principality was hotly contested during the reign of the hated Pandulf IV, the Wolf of the Abruzzi, and, under his son, it fell, almost without contest, to the Norman Richard Drengot (1058). The Capuans revolted against Norman rule in 1091, expelling Richard's grandson Richard II and setting up one Lando IV. Capua was again put under Norman rule by the Siege of Capua of 1098 and the city quickly declined in importance under a series of ineffectual Norman rulers.

The independent status of these Lombard states is generally attested by the ability of their rulers to switch suzerains at will. Often the legal vassal of pope or emperor (either Byzantine or Holy Roman), they were the real power-brokers in the south until their erstwhile allies, the Normans, rose to preeminence. Certainly the Lombards regarded the Normans as barbarians and the Byzantines as oppressors, regarding their own civilisation as superior, they did indeed provide the environment for the illustrious Schola Medica Salernitana.

[edit] Lombard states

[edit] Sources

Much of our knowledge of the mythological and semi-mythological early history of the Lombard people comes from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards (Historia Langobardorum) written in the late 8th century, indebted to the 7th century Origo Gentis Langobardorum.

[edit] Historic kings of the Lombards

[edit] Lething Dynasty

[edit] Another Dynasty

[edit] Gausian Dynasty

[edit] Another Dynasty

Rule of the Dukes (Ten year interregnum)

[edit] Bavarian Dynasty, First Time

[edit] Non-dynastic Kings

[edit] Harodingians Dynasty

[edit] Bavarian Dynasty, Second Time

[edit] Beneventan Dynasty

[edit] Bavarian Dynasty, Third Time

[edit] Non-dynastic Kings

[edit] Notes


[edit] References

[edit] See also

da:Langobarder de:Langobarden et:Langobardid el:Λομβαρδοί es:Lombardo eo:Lombardoj fr:Lombards hr:Langobardi it:Longobardi nl:Langobarden ja:ランゴバルド人 no:Langobardene pl:Longobardowie pt:Lombardos ru:Лангобардское королевство sr:Лангобарди fi:Lombardit sv:Langobarder uk:Лангобарди zh:伦巴底人


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