Marathi people

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Marathi People OR Maharashtrians
( मराठी माणसं / महाराष्ट्रीयन )
Total population 70 to 80 million
Regions with significant populations Primary populations in:

Populations in:

Other:

Language Marathi
Religion Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism <tr>
<th style="background-color:#fee8ab;">Related ethnic groups</th>
<td style="background-color:#fff6d9;">Indo-Iranians, Indo-Aryans</td>

</tr>

The Marathi people or Maharashtrians (Marathi: मराठी माणसं or महाराष्ट्रीयन)are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group that inhabit the Maharashtra region and state of western India. Their language Marathi is part of the southern group of Indo-Aryan languages. They have an extraordinary military history going back to the time of the Maratha warriors and have founded several Maratha empires in the subcontinent before the arrival of the British. They are mostly descended from the ancient Aryans though there may be some of Dravidian, Hunnic and Indo-Scythian descent.

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[edit] Etymology

The Marathi people are also known as Maharashtrians. In the Marathi language, they refer to themselves as marathi manoos. They are called Marathi people because of the language they speak, Marathi. Several theories have been proposed by various scholars for the etymology of the words "Marāthi" and "Maharashtra". One theory holds that a reference to a clan known as "Rāshtrika" in some of Ashoka's inscriptions alludes to a people of the Deccan, who were progenitors of the Marathi-speaking people; that the later "Mahārāshtri Prakrit" is associated with these people; and that Marāthi is a derivation of the word Mahārāshtri. It must be noted that Mahārāshtri Prakrit was the official language of the Satavahana Empire as well. This theory, however, does not address the deeper root of the word Rāshtrika and its use in reference exclusively to a specific people in south-central India. The Sanskrit word "Rāshtra" is presently translated to "nation" (Rāshtrika meaning "national") but in millennia past, the word could apparently be applied to any sizable administrative division.

Other theories link the words Marāthi and Rāshtri with Ratta, supposedly a corruption of Rāshtrakuta, the name of a dynasty that held sway over the Deccan from the 8th-10th centuries CE. However, the Ashokan inscriptions predate the Rashtrakutas by more than a millennium, and these theories cannot be reconciled.

Marathi was the court language during the reign of the Yadava Kings. The Yadava king Singhana is known for his magnanimous donations which are carved in stone slabs in Marathi in the temple of Goddess at Kolhapur in Maharashtra. Composition of famous works of scholars like Hemadri are also found. Hemadri was also responsible for introducing a style of architecture also called Hemandpanth.[1] There are various stone inscriptions in Marathi found at Akshi in Raigad (former Colaba) district, Patan, Pandharpur, Dive-Agra etc. The most famous among these is the one found at the bottom of the statue of Gomateshwar (Bahubali) at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka. This inscription goes like "Chamundraye karaviyale, Gangaraye suttale karaviyale" which gives some information regarding the sculptor of the statue and the king who had it constructed.[2]

[edit] History

The earliest records refer to the region today known as Maharashtra as Dandakaranyas which means "Forest ruled by Laws". Around 600 BC, the region today known as Maharashtra was one of the mahajanapadas known as Assaka. However, it is not known whether prior to the coming of the Aryans, this region was inhabited by other civilizations or not. After Ashoka, the region became part of the Mauryan Empire and got Aryanized. Around 230 BC, a local dynasty, the Sātavāhanas rose to power in the Maharashtra. The kingdom, based in Junnar near Pune, eventually turned into an empire with the conquests of the northern part of what is today known as Karnataka as well as Andhra Pradesh. It is believed that most of the Marathi people today are descendants of this empire. The empire reached its zenith under Gautamiputra Sátakarni, more popularly known as Shalivahan. He started a new calender called Shalivahan Shaka which is still used by Maharashtrians today. The empire collapsed around 300 CE. The use of Maharashtri language (proto-Marathi) also started during the Satavahana rule. After which the region was ruled by various small kingdoms. The region was annexed by the Rashtrakuta dynasty in the 8th century. After the Rashtrakuta kingdom fell, the region was ruled by the Yadava Dynasty of Deogiri who made Marathi their official language. They ruled till 13th century after which the region fell under Islamic rule. The Deccan sultanates ruled Maharashtra for around three centuries.

In mid 17th century, Shivaji Maharaj founded the Maratha Empire by reclaiming the Desh and the Konkan region. After a lifetime of exploits and a series of conquests, Shivaji died in 1680. The Mughals who had lost a lot of ground to the Marathas under Shivaji invaded Maharashtra in 1681. Shivaji's son Sambhaji was crowned Emperor in 1681 after a brief civil war. Sambhaji led the Marathas valiantly against a much stronger opponent. Till 1689, Sambhaji never lost a fort or territory to Aurangzeb. But in 1689, he was betrayed by his own commanders and was captured, brutally tortured and cruelly beheaded by Aurangzeb.<ref>"Sambhaji" - Patil, Vishwas, Mehta Publishing House, Pune, 2006</ref> With their leader dead, the Marathas were demoralised, but the young Rajaram was put to the throne and then the Maratha crown prince had to retreat to Jinji in South India. But in 1707, under the leadership of Maharani Tarabai, the Marathas won the War of 27 years. After that the Peshwa became the real power behind the empire. The empire was expanded by Bajirao and his son Balaji Bajirao until the Marathas ruled practically the whole sub-continent. Pune became the imperial seat with envoys, ambassadors and royals coming in from far and near. However, after the Third battle of Panipat, the empire broke up into independent kingdoms. However due to the efforts of Mahadji Shinde, it remained a confederacy until the British defeated Bajirao II. Still, small kingdoms of Marathas remained in the country until Independence of India when the kingdoms acceded into the Dominion of India.

[edit] Literature

Main article: Marathi literature

The Marathi people have a long literary tradition which started in the ancient era. However, it was the 13th century saint Sant Dnyaneshwar who made literature highly popular among the masses. His Dnyaneshwari is considered a masterpiece. Along with Dnyaneshwar, Sant Namdev was also responsible for propagating Marathi literature. Namdev is also important to the Sikh tradition, since several of his compositions are enshrined in the Guru Granth Sahib. Sant Eknath, Sant Tukaram, Mukteshwar and Samartha Ramdas Swami were equally important figures in the 17th century. In the 18th century, writers like Vaman Pandit, Raghunath Pandit, Shridhar Pandit and Mororpanta produced some well-known works.

The first English Book was translated in Marathi in 1817. The first Marathi newspaper started in 1835. Many books on social reforms were written by Baba Padamji (Yamuna Paryatana, 1857), Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Lokhitawadi, Justice M G Ranade, Hari Narayan Apte (1864-1919) etc. Lokmanya Tilak's newspaper Kesari, set up in 1880, provided a platform for sharing literary views. Marathi at this time was efficiently aided by Marathi Drama.

Modern Marathi poetry began with Mahatma Jyotiba Phule's compositions. The later poets like Keshavsuta, Balakavi, Govindagraj, and the poets of Ravi Kiran Mandal like Madhav Julian wrote poetry which was influenced by the Romantic and Victorian English poetry. It was largely sentimental and lyrical. Prahlad Keshav Atre, the renowned satirist and a politician wrote a parody of this sort of poetry in his collection Jhenduchi Phule. Sane Guruji (1899-1950) contributed to the children's literature in Marathi. His major works are Shyamchi Aai (Shyam's Mother), Astik (Believer), Gode Shevat (The Sweet Ending) etc. He translated and simplified many Western Classics and published them in a book of stories titled Gode Goshti (Sweet Stories). Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar (1889-1976)'s Yayati won him the Jnanpith Award for 1975. He also wrote many other novels, short stories, essays etc. The poetry of Arun Kolatkar, Dilip Chitre, Namdeo Dhasal, Vasant Abaji Dahake, Manohar Oak and many other modernist poets is complex, rich and provokative. Bhau Padhye, Vilas Sarang Shyam Manohar and Vishram Bedekar are well known fiction writers.

In the second half of the 20th century, Marathi literature rose to its highest with more and more common people patronizing it. Writers like Pu La, Va Pu Kale, Ranjeet Desai, Gangadhar Gadgil and Vijay Tendulkar are considered modern greats.

Muslim authors too have contributed to Marathi literature. Poets like Amar Shaikh and Shahir Shaikh wrote some memorable poetry. Shahir Shaikh was an important figure in the "Maharashtra Ekkikaran Chalwal". The Marathi Muslim Writers Movement which was started in Solapur by Prof. F.H.Bennur to inculcate Marathi literature among young Muslims, has acquired credibility of its own and holds its sessions regularly. Recently, authors like Hamid Dalwai also contributed to the development of Marathi literature.

In the mid fifties, the "Little magazine movement" gained momentum. It published writings which were non-conformist, radical and experimental. Dalit literary movement also gained strength due to the little magazine movement. This radical movement was influenced by the philosophy of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and challenged the literary establishment which comprised of largely middle class, urban and upper caste people. The little magazine movement threw up many excellent writers. Bhalchandra Nemade is a well known novelist, critic and poet. Dalit writer Na Dho Mahanor is well known for his work.

[edit] Religion

Most Marathi people are Hindus, although there are sizeable minorities of Muslims, Christians and Neo-Buddhists. There is a small but vibrant community of Marathi Jews, popularly known as Bene Israelis. Though most of them have migrated to Israel, there are 3,000 Bene Israelis still in Maharashtra. Most of them stay around the Mumbai and Pune region. These Bene Israelis make up more than half of the total population of Jews in India.

[edit] Food

There are many communities in the Marathi society which gives the cuisine much diversity. Majority of Maharashtrians do eat meat and eggs, but the Brahmin community is almost totally lacto-vegetarian. Although, many liberal-minded Brahmins have now taken to Non vegetarianism or Ovo vegetarianism. Similarly many non-Brahmins have taken to vegetarianism and even Veganism. Maharashtrian cuisine is regionally diverse. The cuisine on Desh is usually bhakri(bread preparation), cooked vegetables, dal and rice. The North Maharashtrians prefer "chappatti" though. In Konkan, rice is the traditional staple food. In South Konkan, near Malvan, an independent exotic cuisine has developed called Malvani cuisine. It is predominantly non-vegetarian. Kombdi Vade, fish preparations and baked preparations are more popular here. Desserts are an important part of Marathi food. Puran poli, Amrakhand, Basundi,Kheer, Malpua and Modak are loved by most people.

[edit] Festivals

This section provides brief overview of various festivals celebrated in Maharashtra. Some of the festivals listed here are celebrated all over India (eg. Dasara, Diwali, Raksha Bandhan, etc.) with certain special traditions followed by Maharashtrian Community while others are typical Maharashtrian festivals (eg. Gudi Padwa, Mangala Gaur, Bhogi, etc.).

  • Gudhi Padwa
    • First day of the month Chaitra as per Hindu Calendar (usually comes in the month of March) is celebrated as Marathi new year. This is the day when Rama returned to Ayodhya after killing Ravana. Please note that in Northern India, it is believed the Rama returned to Ayodhya on Diwali Padwa. The residents celebrated his homecoming by decorating their homes with Gudi (victory pole). Gudi padwa is also celebrated as the day when Shalivahan defeated the Shaka rulers. The legends says he put life into mud figures of soldiers This is one of the 3 and a half days in the Hindu Lunar calendar, whose every moment is considered auspicious. This is the day on which people start new ventures, perform house-warming poojas and buy expensive items such as gold, silver, new appliances or property. Kids perform Saraswati Pooja on this day before starting their new academic year. This marks the beginning of new season, Spring.
  • Akshaya Tritiya
    • The third day of the Vaishak month is celebrated as Akshaya Tritiya. This is one of the 3.5 most auspicious days in the Hindu Calendar (usually comes in the month of April). This marks the end of Haldi Kumkum festival which is a get-together organised by women for women. Married women invite friends, relatives and new acquaintances to meet in an atmosphere of merriment and fun. On such occasions, the hostess distributes bangles, sweets, small novelties, flowers, betel leaves and nuts as well as coconuts. The snacks include Kairiche Panhe (raw mango juice) and Vatli Dal.
  • Vat Paurnima
    • This festival is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Jyeshtha, around June. On this day, women fast and worship the Banyan tree to pray for the growth and strength of their families, like the sprawling tree which lives for centuries. Married women visit a nearby tree and worship it by tying red threads of love around it. They pray for well-being and long life of their husband.
  • Ashadhi Ekadashi
    • Ashadi Ekadashi (11th day of the month Ashada - falls somewhere around July -August) is closely associated with great Marathi saint Dnyaneshwar. Twenty days prior to this day, thousands of Varkaris start their pilgrimage to Pandharpur from Alandi with Dnyaneshwar's Paduka (footwear) in a Palakhi. Varkaris carry Tals or small cymbals in their hand, wear a rosary of tulsi around their neck and sing and dance to the devotional hymns and prayers to Vitthala. People fast all over Maharashtra on this day and offer prayers in the temples. This day marks starting of Chaturmas (The four Monsoon months, from Ashad through Kartik) as per Hindu Calendar.
  • Guru Paurnima
    • The full moon day of the month Ashada is celebrated as Guru Purnima. For Hindus 'Guru-Shishya' ('Teacher-Student') tradition is very important, be it educational or spiritual. Gurus are often equated with God and always regarded as a link between the individual and the Immortal. On this day spiritual aspirants and devotees worship Maharshi Vyasa, who is regarded as Guru of Gurus.
  • Nag Panchami
    • One of the many festivals in india, where Marathi people celebrate the nature. Nags (Cobras) are worshipped on the fifth day of Shravan month (around August) of Hindu Calendar. Women put temporary tatoos with Henna on their hand on the previous day and buy new bangles on Nag Panchami day. In a small village named Battis Shirala in Maharashtra a big snake festival is held which attracts thousands of tourists worldwide. In other parts of Maharashtra snake charmers are seen sitting by the roadsides or moving from one place to another with their baskets that hold snakes. While playing the lingering melodious notes on their flutes, they beckon devotees with their calls -"Nagoba-la dudh de Mayi" (give milk to the Cobra Oh Mother!) Women offer sweetened milk, popcorns ('lahya' in Marathi) to the snakes and pray. Cash and old clothes are also given to the snake-charmers.
  • Narali Paurnima / Raksha Bandhan
    • This festival is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Shravan in the Hindu Calendar (around month of August). This is the most important festival for the coastal region as the new season for fishing starts on this day after the rainy season. Fishermen and women offer coconuts to the sea and ask for peaceful season. The same day is celebrated as Rakhi Poornima to commemorate the abiding ties between brother and sister. Narali Bhat (sweet rice with Coconut)is the main dish on this day. Deshastha Brahmin men change their sacred thread (janve in Marathi) on this day.
  • Gokul Ashtami
    • Birthday of the Lord Krishna is celebrated with great fervour all over India on the 8th day of second fortnight of the month Shravan (usually comes in the month of August). In Maharashtra, Gokul Ashtami is synonymous with the ceremony of Dahi handi. Dahi handi is an enactment of Lord Krishna's efforts to steal butter from Matka (earthen pot) suspended from the ceiling. Large earthen pots filled with milk, curds, butter, honey, fruits etc. are suspended from a height between 20 to 40 feet in the streets. Teams of young men and boys come forward to claim this prize. They construct a human pyramid by standing over each other's shoulders till the pyramid is tall enough to enable the topmost person to reach the pot and claim the contents after breaking it. Many times currency notes are tied to the rope by which the pot is suspended. The prize money is distributed among those who participate in the pyramid building. The Dahi-hundi draws huge crowd and they support the teams trying to grab these pots by chanting 'Govinda ala re ala'.
  • Mangala Gaur
    • Pahili Mangala Gaur (first Mangala Gaur) celebration is one of the most important celeration for the new brides in Maharashtra. On the Tuesday of the month of Shravan after her marriage, the new bride performs Shivling puja for the well being of her husband and new family. It is also a get-together of all women folks. It includes chatting, playing games, Ukhane (married women take their husband's name woven in 2/4 rhyming liners) and great food. They typically play Zimma, Fugadi, Bhendya (more popularly known as Antakshari in modern India) till the wee hours of the next morning.
  • Bail Pola / Pithori Amavasya
    • Pola or Bail Pola is celebrated on the new moon day (Pithori Amavasya) of the Shravan month (usually falls in August) to pay respect to bulls for their year long hard work. The festival is very important for the farmers. On the day of Pola, farmers take their bulls to the river and clean them thoroughly. They then decorate them by painting horns, putting decorative shawls on their body, ornaments on their horn and flower garlands around their neck. The bulls are then taken in a joyous procession accompanied by music and dancing. Villages have fairs, competitions to celebrate this festival. This is a vacation day for the bulls.
  • Hartalika
    • Third day of the month of Bhadrapada (usually comes around August/September) is celebrated as Hartalika in honor of Harita Gauri or the green and golden goddess of harvests and prosperity. A lavishly decorated form of Parvati, Gauri is venerated as the mother of Ganesha. Women fast on this day and worship Shiva and Parvati in the evening with green leaves. Women wear green bangles and green clothes and stay awake till midnight.
  • Ganesh Chaturthi
    • Birthday of Lord Ganesha is celebrated with tremendous enthusiasm as Ganesh Chaturthi on the fourth day of Bhadrapada in honor of Lord Ganesha, the God of wisdom. Almost every household in the state installs Ganesha idols at home. Early morning on this day, the clay idols of Ganesha are brought home while chanting Ganpati Bappa Morya and installed on the decorated platforms. During India's independence struggle, Lokmanya Tilak turned this festival into a public event and united people towards a common goal of throwing British colonizers out of India. The festival is still celebrated as public and private event. The festival lasts for 10 days with various cultural programmes like music concerts, orchestra, plays and skits. Some social activities are also undertaken during this period like blood donation, scholarships for the needy or donation to the people suffering from any kind of natural calamity.
  • Gauri
    • Along with Ganesha, Gauri festival is celebrated with lot of festivities in Maharashtra. This is three day festival. On the first day, Gauris arrive at home, next day they eat lunch with variety of sweets and on third day they return to their home. Gauris arrive in a pair, one as Jyeshta (meaning the Elder one) and another as Kanishta (meaning the Younger one). They are treated with lots of love since they represent the daughters arriving at their parents place.
  • Anant Chaturdashi
    • 11th day of Ganesh festival (14th day of the month Bhadrapada)is celebrated as Anant Chaturdashi which marks the end of the Ganesh festival. People bid tearful farewell to the God by immersing the installed idols from home / public places in water by chanting 'Ganapati Bappa Morya, pudhchya warshi Lawakar ya!!' (Father Ganesha, come early next year).
  • Ghatsthapana / Navratri
    • Starting with first day of the month of Ashwin as per Hindu Calendar (around month of October), the nine days and nights festival immediately preceding the most important festival Dasara is celebrated all over India with different traditions. In Maharashtra on the very first day of this 10 day festival, idols of Goddess Durga are installed at many homes. This installation of the Goddess is popularly known as Ghatsthapana. During this period, little girls celebrate 'Bhondla/Hadga' as the Sun moves to the thirteenth constellation of the zodiac called "Hasta" (Elephant). During the nine days, Bhondla is celebrated in the garden or on the terrace during evening hours by iniviting female friends of the daughter in the house. An elephant is drawn either with Rangoli on the soil or with a chalk on a slate and kept in the middle. The girls go around it in a circle, holding each other's hands and singing the Bhondla songs. All the Bhondla songs are traditional songs passed down the generations. The last song typically ends with the words '...khirapatila kaay ga?' (meaning 'What is the special dish today?'). This 'Khirapat' is a special dish / dishes often made laboriously by the mother of the host girl. The food is served only after the rest of the girls have guessed the dish/dishes correctly.
  • Dasara
    • This festival is celebrated on the tenth day of the Ashwin month (around October) according to the Hindu Calender. This is one of the 3 and a half days in the Hindu Lunar calendar, whose every moment is considered auspicious. On the last day (Dasara day), the idols installed on the first day of the Navratri are immersed in water. This day also marks the victory of Lord Rama over Ravana. People visit each other and exchange sweets. On this day, people worship Aapta tree and exchange its leaves (known as golden leaves) and wish each other future like the gold. There is a legend involving Raghuraja , an ancestor of Rama, Aapta tree and Kuber. There is also another legend about Shami tree where the Pandava hid their weapons during their exile.
  • Kojagari
    • Short form of Sanskrit 'Ko Jagarti?' (meaning 'Who is awake?'), Kojagiri is celebrated on the full moon day of the month Ashwin. It is said that on this Kojagiri night Goddess Lakshmi visits every house asking "Ko Jagarti?" and blesses those who are awake with fortune and prosperity. To welcome the Goddess, Houses, temples, streets, etc. are illuminated. People get together on this night usually in the open space (eg. garden or on the terrace) and play games till midnight. At midnight, after seeing reflection of full moon in the boiled milk (boiled with saffron and various varieties of dry fruits), they drink this milk. Eldest child in the household is honored on this day.
  • Diwali
    • Diwali is by far the most glamorous and important festival in India. Houses are illuminated with rows of clay lamps and are decorated with rangoli and aakash kandils (decorative lanterns of different shapes and sizes). Diwali is celebrated with new clothes, spectacular firecrackers and a variety of sweets in the company of family and friends. This joyous celebration is, on the whole, symbolic of dispelling the darkness of misery and bringing the light of prosperity and happiness into human life.
      • First Day: Diwali starts on the 13th day of the dark fortnight of the month of Ashwin (October / November). This day is known as Dhantrayodashi or Dhanteras.
      • Second Day: The 14th day of dark fortnight is known as Narak Chaturdashi. On this day people celebrate demon Narakasur’s death by Lord Krishna. They get up early in the morning and massage their bodies with scented oil. They make use of 'utane' or 'utanah' for bath instead of soap. This special bath is referred to as 'abhyang-snan'. Utane is up made of several things having ayurvedic properties like 'chandan' (sandal wood), 'kapoor' (camphor), manjistha, rose, orange skin and haldi (turmeric).
      • Third Day: It is believed that Goddess of wealth Lakshmi visits every house in the evening of the new Moon, so this day is celebrated as Lakshmi pujan. Every household performs worship of Goddess Lakshmi, Lord Ganesh and money.Unlike Gujarat where Chopdapujan or closing of books takes place in a temple, Marathi people do the same ceremony at home. It is customary in Maharashtra to stay at home on this night.
      • Fourth Day: Next day which is first day of the Hindu calendar observed in North India. Marathi people celebrate this first day of month of Karthik as 'Diwalicha Padva'. This is a celebration of togetherness and love for married people. To mark the occasion wives usually receive special gifts from their husbands after the 'aukshan'.
      • Fifth Day: Last day of Diwali festival is called Bhau Bij. On this day, sisters pray for long life of their brothers. Brothers, in turn bless their sister and pamper them with gifts.
  • Tulsi Vivah
    • The Tulsi (Holy Basil plant) is held sacred by the Hindus as it is regarded as an incarnation of Mahalaxmi who was born as Vrinda. End of Diwali celebrations marks the beginning of Tulsi-Vivah. Maharashtrians organize marriage of sacred Tulsi plant in their house with Lord Krishna. On this day the Tulsi vrindavan is colored and decorated as a bride. Sugarcane and branches of tamarind and amla trees are planted along with the tulsi plant. Though a mock marriage, all the ceremonies of an actual Maharashtrian marriage are conduncted including chanting of mantras , Mangal Ashtaka and tying of Mangal Sutra to Tulsi. Families and friends gather for this marriage ceremony which usually takes place late evening. Various poha dishes are offered to Lord Krishna and then distributed among family members and friends. This also marks the beginning of marriage season.
  • Bhogi
    • Eve of Hindu festival 'Makar Sankranti'.
  • Makar Sankranti
    • Sankraman means passing of the Sun from one Zodiac sign to the other. This day marks the Sun's passage from the Tropic of Dhanu (Sagittarius) to Makar (Capricorn). Makar Sankranti falls on January 14 in non-leap years and on January 15 in leap years. It is the only Hindu festival which is based on the Solar calendar rather than the Lunar calendar. The day starts becoming longer from Jan 14 as the Sun moves from Southern hemisphere to Northern hemisphere. For Maharashtrians, Sankrant is the festival of friendship, a time to celebrate the old friendships, to form new ones and repair the old ones. Maharashtrians exchange sweets with each other saying "Tilgul ghyA Ani goD bolA" which means "Accept tilgul (sweets) and speak sweet words". Tilgul is a sweet concoction made out of til - sesame seeds and gul - jaggery. Friends are asked to emulate the quality of Tilgul and stick together in lasting friendship and love. Sweet rotis (bread) made from seasame seeds and jaggery called "gul-poli" is the special dish of the day. The special significance of "til" is because of its nutritive and medicinal qualities and as this festival falls in the winter season the combination of til and jaggery is extremely beneficial and nutritive. People wear black clothes on this day. Maharashtrian women wear a special black saree called 'Chandrakala' which is embossed with crescent moons and stars and married women celebrate the festival by getting together for "haldi Kumkum".

[edit] Marathi people Outside India

Many Marathi people have migrated to other countries and settled there. Significant number of Marathis have settled in United Kingdom, United States Of America, Mauritius, Israel and Switzerland.

[edit] Trivia

  • Madhu Sapre opened the glamour world of Miss Universe / Miss World contests to Indian beauties when she became second runner up in Miss Universe beauty pageant 1992.
  • The highest paid actor in India, Tamil film star Rajnikanth is Marathi. He charges around Rs.20 crore (approx. $4.5 MM) per movie. [4]

[edit] Notable Marathi People

[edit] Historical

[edit] Rulers

[edit] Generals

[edit] Religion

[edit] Politics

[edit] Activists

[edit] Reformers

  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale - He established the Servants of India Society and represented Indian interests in the imperial legislative council. Mahatma Gandhi considered him his Guru.
  • Dhondo Keshav Karve - Maharshi Karve fought for the upliftment of women, started a college for them and established the first Indian University for women, named SNDT Women's University. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1958
  • Raghunath Karve - Pioneer of Family Planning and Birth Control clinics in India
  • Gadge Maharaj - He dedicated his life for fight against social evils. He built inns, schools, animal shelters and medical centres. Cleanliness was his mantra
  • Jyotiba Phule - Mahatma Jyotiba Phule started education for women and struggled hard for the upliftment of the depressed classes.
  • Mahadev Govind Ranade

[edit] Academics

[edit] Sciences

[edit] Cinema And Theatre

[edit] Literature

[edit] Music

Recipient of Bharat Ratna in 2001

[edit] Sports

former Indian captain, scorer of most Test and ODI centuries, most ODI runs in history

[edit] Business

[edit] Beauruacracy

[edit] Others

[edit] See Also

[edit] References

[edit] Sources

Marathi people

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