Mumbai (IPA:/'mumbəi/ ,Marathi: मुंबई), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)<ref>World Gazetteer</ref>. Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, off the west coast of Maharashtra. Along with its neighbouring suburbs, it forms the world's sixth most populous metropolitan area with a population of about 20 million. The city has a deep natural harbour and the port handles over half of India's passenger traffic and a significant amount of cargo.<ref>Manorama Yearbook 2006</ref>
Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, and houses important financial institutions, such as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies. Mumbai has attracted migrants from all over India because of the immense business opportunities, and the relatively high standard of living, making the city a potpourri of various communities and cultures. The city is home to India's Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood. Mumbai is also one of the rare cities to accommodate a national park, the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, within its city limits.
The appellation Mumbai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba— the name of the Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, and Aai — mother in Marathi.<ref>Samuel Sheppard Bombay Place-Names and Street-Names (Bombay: The Times Press) 1917 pp104-5</ref> In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Bahia (Good Bay) , later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim, by which it is still known in Portuguese. After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay, although it was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.<ref>Sujata Patel "Bombay and Mumbai: Identities, Politics and Populism" in Sujata Patel & Jim Masselos (Eds.) Bombay and Mumbai. The City in Transition (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2003 p4</ref> The name was officially changed to Mumbai in 1995, but the former name is still used by many of the city's inhabitants and famous institutions.
Other sources have a different origin for the Portuguese toponym Bombaim. José Pedro Machado's Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa ("Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology") mentions what is probably the first Portuguese reference to the place, dated from 1516, as Benamajambu or Tena-Maiambu<ref>Barbosa, Duarte, "Livro em que dá relação do que viu e ouviu no Oriente", 1516, apud Machado, J.P., "Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa".</ref>, pointing out that "maiambu"' seems to refer to Mumba-Devi, the Hindu goddess after which the place is named in Marathi (Mumbai). In that same century the spelling seems to have evolved to Mombayn (1525)<ref>Documents from the "Tombo do Estado da Índia" (currently the Historical Archives of Goa or Goa Purabhilekha).</ref> and then Mombaim (1563)<ref>Orta, Garcia da, "Colóquios dos Simples e Drogas da Índia", original edition 1565, referenced edition 1891-1895, apud Machado, J.P., "Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa".</ref>. The final form Bombaim appears later in the 16th century, as recorded by Gaspar Correia in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").<ref>Correia, Gaspar, "Lendas da Índia", originally from the 16th century, the text was published only in 1858 and 1866.</ref> J.P. Machado seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, asserting that Portuguese records mentioning the presence of a bay at the place led the English to assume that the noun (bahia, "bay") was an integral part of the Portuguese toponym, hence the English version Bombay, adapted from Portuguese.<ref>Machado, José Pedro, "Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa", entry "Bombaim", volume I, pp. 265/266.</ref>
Present-day Mumbai was originally an archipelago of seven islands.
Artefacts found near Kandivali, in northern Mumbai indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age.<ref>Tour operators</ref> Documented evidence of human habitation dates back to 250 BC, when it was known as Heptanesia (Ptolemy) (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands). In the 3rd century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Aşoka. The Hindu rulers of the Silhara Dynasty later governed the islands until 1343, when the kingdom of Gujarat annexed them. Some of the oldest edifices of the archipelago – the Elephanta Caves and the Walkeshwar temple complex date from this era.
In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, naming them Bom Baia, Portuguese for "good bay". They were ceded to Charles II of England in 1661, as dowry for Catherine de Braganza. These islands, were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum. The company found the deep harbour on the east coast of the islands to be ideal for setting up their first port in the sub-continent. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675; In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency.
From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 km².In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy and subsequently enhancing the city's stature. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.<ref> See Mariam Dossal Imperial Designs and Indian Realities. The Planning of Bombay City 1845-1875 (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1991</ref>
Over the next thirty years, the city grew into a major urban centre, spurred by an improvement in infrastructure and the construction of many of the city's institutions. The population of the city swelled to one million by 1906, making it the second largest in India after Calcutta. As capital of the Bombay Presidency, it was a major base for the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 being its most rubric event. After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State. In the 1950 the city expanded to its present limits by incorporating parts of Salsette island which lay to the north.
After 1955, when the State of Bombay was being reorganised along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. However, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra. Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1, 1960
The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Bombay overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city. This has being giving rise to unrest in Marathi speaking people in Mumbai and consequently Shiv Sena,a political outfit safeguarding the rights of 'sons of soil' was formed in 1966.The city's secular fabric was torn apart in 1992, after large scale sectarian violence caused extensive loss of life and property. A few months later, on March 12, simultaneous bombings at several city landmarks by the Mumbai underworld killed around three hundred people. In 1995, the city was renamed Mumbai by the Shiv Sena party government of Maharashtra, in keeping with their policy of renaming colonial institutions after historic local appellations. In 2006, Mumbai was also the site of a major terrorist incident in which over two hundred people were killed when several bombs exploded almost simultaneously on the Mumbai Suburban Railway.<ref>"India: Zero tolerance to terrorism", Associated Press via CNN, 2006-07-16. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.</ref>
- See also: Timeline of Mumbai events
Mumbai is located on Salsette Island, which lies at the mouth of Ulhas River off the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. Much of Mumbai is at sea level, and the average elevation ranges from 10 to 15 metres. The northern part of Mumbai is hilly, and the highest point of the city is at 450 metres (1,450 feet)<ref>Kanheri, Lungs of Mumbai, Krishnadas Warrier, Bhramanti</ref>. Mumbai spans a total area of 468 km² (169 mi²).
Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake, Vihar Lake and Powai Lake. The first two are located within the Borivali National Park, and supply part of the city's drinking water. Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in the National Park. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays. The eastern seaboard of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity.
Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acid and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone<ref>The Seismic Environment of Mumbai, TIFR - Theoretical Physics</ref> owing to the presence of three fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter scale may be expected.
Mumbai is classified as a metropolis of India, under the jurisdiction of the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation. It consists of two distinct regions — the city and the suburbs, which also form two separate districts of Maharashtra. The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City<ref>MMRDA Projects, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)</ref>.
- See also: List of Mumbai beaches
The climate of the city, being in the tropical zone, and near the Arabian Sea, may be broadly classified into two main seasons — the humid season, and the dry season. The humid season, between March and October, is characterised by high humidity and temperatures of over 30 °C (86 °F). The monsoon rains lash the city between June to September, and supply most of the city's annual rainfall of 2,200 mm (85 in). The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (135.89 in) in 1954<ref>Mumbai Plan, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation (Maharashtra)</ref>. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37.16 in) on 2005-07-26.<ref>DNA</ref>
The dry season, between November and February, is characterised by moderate levels of humidity and warm to cool weather. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill during January and February. Annual temperatures range from a high of 38 °C (100 °F) to a low of 11 °C (52 °F). The record high is 43.3 °C (110 °F) and record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) on 1962-01-22.<ref>http://www.angelfire.com/ma/maxcrc/temp.html Extreme temperatures </ref>
Mumbai contributes 10% of all factory employment, 40% of all income tax collections, 60% of all customs duty collections, 20% of all central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rupees 40 billion (US$ 9 billion) in corporate taxes<ref>Manorama Yearbook 2003, pg 678, ISBN 81-900461-8-7</ref>. A number of Indian financial institutions have headquarters in downtown Mumbai, including the Bombay Stock Exchange, the Reserve Bank of India, the National Stock Exchange of India, the Mint, and numerous conglomerates (the Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance etc). Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area.
Up until the 1980s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology. Mumbai’s status as the state capital means that state and federal government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry too employs many residents, directly or indirectly.
The entertainment industry is the other major employer in Mumbai. Most of India's major television and satellite networks are headquartered in Mumbai, as well as its major publishing houses. The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.
 Civic administration
The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government. The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the twenty four municipal wards <ref>Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai</ref>, five nominated Councillors, and a titular Mayor. The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes. Almost all the state political parties field candidates in the elections for Councillors.
The metropolitan area forms two districts of Maharashtra, with each district under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Federal Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.
The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police.
Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.
The city elects six members to the Lok Sabha and thirty-four members to the Maharashtra State Assembly.
Most of Mumbai's inhabitants rely on public transport to travel to and from their workplace due to the lack of car parking spaces, traffic bottlenecks, and generally poor road conditions. The city is the headquarters of two rail divisions – the Central Railway (CR) (headquartered at Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly known as Victoria Terminus)), and the Western Railway (WR) (headquartered near Churchgate). The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, is composed of three separate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction. The Western Railway runs along the western region of the city, while the Central Railway covers most of the central and northeast parts of the metropolis. Both lines extend into the exurbs, each covering a total one-way length of around 125 km. The Harbour Line is a sub-division of the Central Railway, covering a distance of 54 km along the south-eastern section of the city, near the docks, and extending into Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). Mumbai is well connected by the Indian Railways to most parts of India.
Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane. Buses are used for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for long distance commutes. The BEST fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker and air-conditioned.(Reminds people slightly of London)
Black and yellow-metered taxis, accommodating up to four passengers, cover most of the metropolis. Auto rickshaws, allowed to operate only in the suburban areas, are the main form of hired transport here. These three-wheeled vehicles can accommodate up to three passengers.
Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights. The nearby Juhu aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.
With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo. It is also an important base for the Indian Navy.<ref> Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003, pg 524, Malaya Manorama. ISBN 81-89004-07-7</ref>
- See also: Mumbai Suburban Railway
 Utility services
The BMC supplies potable water to the city, most of which come from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes, as well as a few lakes further north. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is also Asia's largest water filtration plant. The BMC is also responsible for the road maintenance and garbage collection in the city. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes<ref>The Times of India, Mumbai edition (print), 2005-04-19, pg 2</ref> is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast,and Deonar in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out in Worli and Bandra.
Electricity is provided by the BEST in the city, and by Reliance Energy and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs. Most of the city's electricity is hydroelectric and nuclear based. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services. Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Hutch, Airtel, BPL group, Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. Broadband internet penetration is increasing in the city, with MTNL and Tata being the leading service providers.
- See also: Mumbai's water sources
The population of Mumbai is about 18 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre. There are 811 females to every 1,000 males – which is lower than the national average, because many working males come from rural areas, where they leave behind their families. The overall literacy rate of the city is above 86%, which is higher than the national average.<ref name=GISData>"Census GIS Household". censusindiamaps.net. 2006.</ref> The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (68% of the population), Muslims (17% of the population), and Christians and Buddhist (4% each). The remainder are Parsis, Jains, Sikhs, Jews and atheists <ref>The Times of India, Mumbai edition (print), 2004-09-24, pg 1</ref>.
For a city of its size, Mumbai has a moderate crime rate. Mumbai recorded 27,577 incidents of crime in 2004, which is down 11% from 30,991 in 2001. The city's main jail is the Arthur Road Jail<ref>The Times of India, Mumbai edition (print), 2005-03-14, pg 5</ref>.
Mumbai has a large polyglot population and Marathi is widely spoken, but the most common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Indian English and some invented colloquial words. Marathi is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. English is extensively spoken, and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. Most languages spoken in India have some degree of representation in the demographic fabric of Mumbai; the most widely spoken of these are Tamil and Gujarati.
Like other large cities in the developing world, Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries — widespread poverty and poor public health, employment, civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. According to the Business Week, around 45-48% of the population lives in shantytowns and slums.
- See also: Growth of Mumbai and Mumbai statistics
 People and culture
A resident of Mumbai is called a Mumbaikar, or Bombayite. Many residents prefer to stay close to major railway stations for easy access to their workplaces, as a significant amount of time is spent on daily commuting. Thus, many live a fast-paced life, with very little time for social activities. Bombay residents celebrate Indian and Western festivals with great fanfare.
The metropolis has its own local roadside fast food flavour, comprising vada pav (leavened wheat bread split in half, with fried dumplings as filling), panipuri (deep fried crêpe with tamarind and lentil sauce), pav bhaji (leavened wheat bread accompanied with fried vegetables) and bhelpuri (puffed rice mixture), while South Indian and Chinese food are also very popular. The cosmopolitan residents have unique tastes in cuisine, music, film and literature, both Indian and international. In 2004, Mumbai received three heritage conservation awards from the UNESCO.
Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema, with the oldest film broadcast here in the early 20th century. Mumbai also boasts of large number of cinemas, including Asia's largest IMAX dome theatre, which feature mainstream Bollywood and Hollywood movies. Many film festivals are avidly attended throughout the year. Besides catering to cinephiles, the city has a thriving theatrical tradition both in the regional languages and in English. Contemporary art is well represented in both government funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government funded art galleries include The Jehangir Art Gallery and The National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is the oldest public library in the city. The city also contains most of India's tallest buildings.
Mumbai has six sister cities (the maximum permitted by the Indian government). They are: Berlin, London, Los Angeles, Saint Petersburg, Stuttgart and Yokohama.<ref>BMC to woo sister cities</ref>
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications and television and radio stations – English newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include Times of India, Mid-day, Indian Express,The Asian Age, DNA,The Free Press Journal, Mumbai Mirror and Hindustan Times. Popular Marathi newspapers include Loksatta, Maharashtra Times and Saamana. In addition to these papers, newspapers are also printed in Kannada, Hindi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Bengali, Urdu, Telugu and Tamil. Mumbai is also home to India's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati and English since 1822.
The national television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Mumbai households receive over a hundred television channels via cable, and a majority of them are produced to cater to the city's polyglot populace. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence.
There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.
- See also: List of Mumbai radio stations
Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts and individuals). A majority of residents prefer private schools because of better infrastructure and the use of English as a medium of instruction. All private schools are affiliated either to the Maharashtra State SSC board, or the all-India Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Demand is especially high for ICSE and CBSE affiliated schools, and those run by convents or the Jesuits. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.
Under the 10+2+3 plan, students complete ten years of schooling, and then enroll for two years in Junior College, where they choose from one of three streams: Arts, Commerce or Science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering, medicine etc. Most professional colleges in Mumbai are affiliated to the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of graduation rate. The Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, one of India's premier engineering schools, and the SNDT Women's University are the other universities in Mumbai.
- See also: List of Mumbai Colleges
 Sports and recreation
Cricket is the most popular sport in the city, and is usually played in the maidans (grounds) around the city. Gully cricket, a modified form of cricket, is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city, especially on Sundays. Mumbai has produced several famous international cricketers, and is home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches. The city has two international cricket stadiums, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The local Mumbai cricket team is among the strongest competitors in the Ranji Trophy, the nation's top domestic cricketing circuit.
Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons, when other outdoor sports cannot be played. The Football World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai. India's national sport, field hockey, has gone into a sharp decline in the recent years, losing out in terms of popularity to cricket, though many Mumbai players play in the national team.
Other sports are mostly played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas, and include tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf. Mumbai also plays Rugby, one of the few cities to do so in the country. Every February, Mumbai holds the Derby races in the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. The event sees many of the city's glitterati attending, arrayed in the latest fashions. In recent times Formula 1 racing has also caught the public's attention. Other sports such as volleyball and basketball are mostly popular in schools and colleges.
 See also
 External links
 Further reading
- Fox, Edmund A; Short History of Bombay Presidency (1887) — Thacker & Co — No ISBN
- MacLean, James Mackenzie; A Guide to Bombay (1875 & 1902) — Various editions; No ISBN
- Chaudhari, K.K; History of Bombay (1987) — Modern Period Gazetteers Dept., Govt. of Maharashtra
- Tindall, Gillian; City of Gold (1992) — Penguin ISBN 0-14-009500-4
- Mehta, Suketu ; Maximum City : Bombay Lost and Found (2004) — Knopf ISBN 0-375-40372-8
- Patel, Sujata & Thorner, Alice; Bombay, Metaphor for Modern India (1995) — Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-563688-0
- Katiyar, Arun & Bhojani, Namas; Bombay, A Contemporary Account (1996) — Harper Collins ISBN 81-7225-216-0
- Contractor, Behram; From Bombay to Mumbai (1998) — Oriana Books
- Virani, Pinki; Once was Bombay (1999) — Viking ISBN 0-670-88869-9
- Mappls — Satellite based comprehensive maps of Mumbai (1999) — CE Info Systems Ltd. ISBN 81-901108-0-2
- Agarwal, Jagdish; Bombay - Mumbai: A Picture Book (1998) &mdash Wilco Publishing House ISBN 81-87288-35-3
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