Nyíregyháza

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Coordinates: 47.95306° 21.72713°

Nyíregyháza
Country: Hungary
County: Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
Area: 274.46 km²
Population (2001):
- Density:
116.899
425.92/km²
Postal code: 4400
Area code: 42
Coordinates: 47.95306° N 21.72713° E

Nyíregyháza listen  (IPA: /ɲireɟhazɒ/; approximate pronunciation: "nyee-redy-haa-zah", Romanian: Mestecǎneşti) is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 117.000 it counts as a large city and is one of the leading cities of Northern Hungary.

Contents

[edit] History

Nyíregyháza was first mentioned in 1209, although it was called only Nyír (means "birch"). A source from 1326 mentions that the town has a church, hence the 2nd part of the name, "egyház" (meaning "church", literally 'one house'). In the middle of the 15th century the town had about 400 inhabitants. In the 16th century, during the Turkish occupation of Hungary Nyíregyháza became deserted, and became inhabited only in the 1630s1640s.

After the War of Independence led by Prince Francis Rákóczi II, the population of the town grew. Most of the new immigrants were from Slovakia. In 1786 Nyíregyháza was granted the right to hold four market days a year, by this time the town was the biggest town of the county with 7,500 inhabitants. In the early 19th century Nyíregyháza was wealthy enough to become free from her feudal lords, the families Dessewffy and Károlyi. During these prosperous years the town got a new town hall, a hospital, several schools and a restaurant by the nearby lake Sóstó ("salty lake").

The inhabitants of the town took an active part in the revolution and war of independence in 1848-49, and after the suppression of the revolution several citizens were imprisoned, among them the mayor, Marton Hatzel.

In the second half of the 19th century Nyíregyháza got more and more urbanized and in 1876 the town became the county capital of Szabolcs county (which is today part of the larger county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg). In 1858 the railway line reached Nyíregyháza, several new buildings were built, including a telegraph office, the main post office and the theater. In 1911 the construction of tramways was finished.

After the many trials and tribulations of World War I, Nyíregyháza was under Romanian occupation for ten months. Between the two world wars the city celebrated the 100th anniversary of becoming free from her feudal landowners.

During World War II more than 6,000 of the city's Jewish inhabitants were deported, and another 2,000 citizens were sent to Russian labour camps (malenky robot). Several buildings were destroyed, too, including the Status Quo Synagogue, whose front wall has been preserved and is now within the gates of Nyiregyhaza's Jewish Cemetery.

From the 1960s the city grew and developed fast. Today, Nyíregyháza is one of the most prosperous cities of Hungary, being both an educational center and a popular tourist destination.

[edit] Tourist sights

The thermal lake of Sóstógyógyfürdõ has been a tourist attraction for centuries. The lake is very warm, around 26ºC, and is surrounded by a park of 2000 m2. There is also a large zoo with animals from all continents of the world. Sóstó is easily accessible from Nyíregyháza by the local bus 8.

Nyíregyháza also has several museums and exhibitions, showing the city's rich cultural heritage.

  • Collection of Greek Catholic Religious Arts – icons and liturgical objects from the 17th–18th centuries
  • Collection of the International Medallion Art and Small Sculpture Creative Community of Nyíregyháza-Sóstó – periodic exhibitions of works of contemporary artists
  • András Jósa Museum with archeological findings from all ages of the city's history, including a numismatic collection from the Bronze Age
  • Village Museum of Sóstó – a glimpse at village life in the 19th century

The city has beautiful churches (Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran churches and a synagogue).

[edit] Twin towns

Nyíregyháza is twinned with :

County of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg
</b> Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Topics | History | Geography | Government | Politics | Economy | People from Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg
County seat Nyíregyháza

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[edit] External links


Counties of Hungary Image:Flag of Hungary.svg
Counties: Bács-Kiskun | Baranya | Békés | Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén | Csongrád | Fejér | Győr-Moson-Sopron | Hajdú-Bihar | Heves | Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok | Komárom-Esztergom | Nógrád | Pest | Somogy | Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg | Tolna | Vas | Veszprém | Zala
Urban counties: Békéscsaba | Debrecen | Dunaújváros | Eger | Érd | Győr | Hódmezővásárhely | Kaposvár | Kecskemét | Miskolc | Nagykanizsa | Nyíregyháza | Pécs | Salgótarján | Sopron | Szeged | Szekszárd | Székesfehérvár | Szolnok | Szombathely | Tatabánya | Veszprém | Zalaegerszeg
Capital: Budapest
See also: Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary; Geography of Hungary
cs:Nyíregyháza

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Nyíregyháza

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