Roma people

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Image:Tsigganes-Greek Roma-Gypsies.jpg
Roma girls in Aetolia, Greece
Total population 8 to 10 million
Regions with significant populations Albania: 70,000[citation needed]

Argentina: 300,000[citation needed]
Bosnia and Herzegovina:
17,000[citation needed]
Brazil: 678,000<ref>[1]</ref>
Bulgaria:313,000 (1992 census), 700,000 - 800,000 est<ref>Bulgaria: 313,000 self-declared in 1992 census, Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov, "The Gypsies of Bulgaria: Problems of the Multicultural Museum Exhibition" (1995), cited in Patrin Web Journal. 450,000 est. in 1990, Bulgaria - Minorities in U.S. Library of Congress Country study. 553,466+, confidential census of the Ministry of the Interior, 1992, Marushiakova and Popov. 700,000–800,000 Marushiakova and Popov estimate.</ref>
Croatia: 14,000<ref>according to 2001 census.</ref>
Czech Republic: 12,000<ref>according to 2001 census</ref>
; 220,000 according to NGOs<ref></ref> France
Finland: 10,000<ref>according to CIA Factbook on Finland.</ref>
Germany: 100,000 (mostly Sinti)[citation needed]
Greece: 200,000 according to the Greek government; 300,000-350,000 according to the Greek Helsinki Monitor [2]
Hungary: 190,046 (2001 census), 500,000 est.<ref>Hungary: 500,000 est. in the 1980s, Hungary - Minority Groups in U.S. Library of Congress Country study.</ref>
Iran: 110,000<ref></ref>
Republic of Macedonia: 53,879<ref>according to 2002 census</ref>
Poland: 15,000–50,000 est.<ref>Poland: 15,000–50,000 est., early 1990s Poland - Gypsies in U.S. Library of Congress Country study.</ref>
Portugal: 40,000<ref>according to]</ref>
Romania: 535,140 (2002 census), Independent estimates range from 1 to 2 million people<ref>Census data based on Population by ethnicity figures. World Bank([3]) and International Association for Official Statistics ([4]) estimate that there are between 1 and 2 million Roma in the country.</ref>
Russia: 183,000<ref>Russia - The 2002 Russian census recorded 182,766 Roma(Gypsies)</ref>
Serbia, Montenegro
Slovakia: 92,500<ref>according to CIA Factbook on Slovakia.</ref>
Spain: 600,000–800,000 est.<ref>Spain: 600,000–800,000 est., 1988, Spain - The Gypsies in U.S. Library of Congress Country study.</ref>
Turkey: 2-5 million<ref>international Romani Studies Network: "Reaching the Romanlar - A Feasibility Study Report", Istanbul, 2006, p. 13. Accesible from [5]</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
United Kingdom: about 40,000 Romani speakers (mainly immigrants from Eastern Europe) - exact figures for non-Romani speaking Romani not known<ref>United Kingdom</ref>
Ukraine: 48,000<ref>Ukraine - The 2001 Ukrainian census recorded 47,587 Roma(Gypsies)</ref>

Language Romani, languages of native region
Religion Christianity, Islam <tr>
<th style="background-color:#fee8ab;">Related ethnic groups</th>
<td style="background-color:#fff6d9;">Doms, Domba, Lyuli, Europeans and Indo-Aryans.</td>


The Roma People (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), sometimes called "Romany Folk" in the United Kingdom, often referred to as Gypsies or Gipsies, are a diverse ethnic group who live primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Latin America, the southern part of the United States and the Middle East. They are believed to have originated mostly from the Punjab and Rajasthan regions of India. They began their migration to Europe and North Africa via the Iranian plateau around 1050.<ref>Kenrick Donald. Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies). Scarecrow Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8108-3444-8</ref>

Traditionally most Roma spoke Romani (Romany), an Indo-Aryan language. Today, however, most Roma speak the dominant language of their region of residence.


[edit] Population

Worldwide, there are an estimated 8 to 10 million Roma. The largest population of Roma is found on the Balkan peninsula; however, significant numbers also live in the Americas, the former Soviet Union, Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

The Roma recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences. Some authorities[citation needed] recognize five main groups:

  1. Kalderash are the most numerous, traditionally coppersmiths, from the Balkans, many of whom migrated to central Europe and North America;
  2. Gitanos (also called Calé) mostly in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, and southern France; associated with entertainment;
  3. Sinti (also known as Manush) mostly in Alsace and other regions of France and Germany; often travelling showmen and circus people;
  4. Romnichal (Rom'nies) mainly in Britain and North America; and
  5. Erlides (also known as Yerlii or Arli) settled in Southeastern Europe and Turkey.

Each of these main divisions may be further divided into two or more subgroups distinguished by occupational specialization or territorial origin, or both. Some of these group names are: Machvaya (Machwaya), Lovari, Churari, Rudari, Boyash, Ludar, Luri, Xoraxai, Ungaritza, Bashaldé, Ursari and Romungro.

[edit] History

Image:Spiezer Schilling 749.jpg
First arrival of the Roma outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden "baptized heathens" and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen style clothes and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749).

Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Roma originated on the Indian Subcontinent[6]. The cause of the Roma diaspora is unknown. One theory suggests the Roma were originally low-caste Hindus recruited into an army of mercenaries, granted warrior caste status, and sent westwards to resist Islamic military expansion. Or perhaps the Muslim conquerors of northern India took the Roma as slaves and brought them home, where they became a distinct community; Mahmud of Ghazni reportedly took 500,000 prisoners during a Turkish/Persian invasion of Sindh and Punjab. Why the Roma did not return to India, choosing instead to travel west into Europe, is an enigma, but may relate to military service under the Muslims.

Contemporary scholars have suggested one of the first written references to the Roma, under the term "Atsingani", (derived from the Greek atsinganoi), dates from the Byzantine era during a time of famine in the 9th century. In the year 800 A.D., Saint Athanasia gave food to "foreigners called the Atsingani" near Thrace. Later, in 803 A.D., Theophanes the Confessor wrote that Emperor Nikephoros I had the help of the "Atsingani" to put down a riot with their "knowledge of magic".

"Atsinganoi" was used to refer to itinerant fortune tellers, ventriloquists and wizards who visited the Emperor Constantine IX in the year 1054.<ref>Indian studies</ref> The hagiographical text, The Life of St. George the Anchorite, mentions that the "Atsingani" were called on by Constantine to help rid his forests of the wild animals which were killing off his livestock. They are later described as sorcerers and evildoers and accused of trying to poison the Emperor's favorite hound.

In 1322 a Franciscan monk named Simon Simeonis described people in likeness to the "atsingani" living in Crete and in 1350 Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language who he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).<ref>Gypsy Culture</ref>

Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."<ref>A Chronology of significant dates in Romani history</ref>

By the 14th century, the Roma had reached the Balkans; by 1424, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Roma also settled in Latin America.

Wherever they arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia. Roma were enslaved for five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864. Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. During World War II, the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos. Like the Jews, they were sentenced to forced labour and imprisonment in concentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen on the Eastern Front.

In Communist Eastern Europe, Roma experienced assimilation schemes and restrictions of cultural freedom. The Romani language and Roma music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria. In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Roma women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future social welfare payments, misinformation, and involuntary sterilization (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991). In the early 1990s, Germany deported tens of thousands of illegal immigrants to Eastern Europe. Sixty percent of some 100,000 Romanian nationals deported under a 1992 treaty were Roma.

[edit] Society and culture

Image:A Gipsy Family Fac simile of a Woodcut in the Cosmographie Universelle of Munster in folio Basle 1552.png
A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552.

The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage. Roma law establishes that the man’s family must pay a dower to the bride's parents.

Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations. This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs, because they produce impure emissions, and the lower body. Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is taboo. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. Many of these practices are also present in cultures such as the Balinese. However, in contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried[citation needed]. It is possible that this tradition was adapted from Abrahamic religions after the Roma left the Indian subcontinent.

[edit] Religion

Roma have usually adopted the dominant religion of the host country while often preserving aspects of their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship. Most Eastern European Roma are Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Muslim. Those in Western Europe and the United States are mostly Catholic or Protestant. Most Roma in Latin America are Orthodox. In Turkey, Egypt, and the southern Balkans, the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations.

Roma religion has a highly developed sense of morality, taboos, and the supernatural, though it is often denigrated by organized religions. It has been suggested that while still in India the Roma people belonged to the Hindu religion, this theory being supported by the Romani word for "cross", trushul, which is the word which describes Shiva's trident (Trishula).

Since World War II, a growing number of Roma have embraced Evangelical movements. Over the past half-century, Roma have become ministers and created their own churches and missionary organizations for the first time.[7] In some countries, the majority of Roma now belong to the Roma churches. This unexpected change has greatly contributed to a better image of Roma in society. The work they perform is seen as more legitimate, and they have begun to obtain legal permits for commercial activities.

Evangelical Roma churches exist today in every country where Roma are settled. The movement is particularly strong in France and Spain; there are more than one thousand Roma churches (known as "Filadelfia") in Spain, with almost one hundred in Madrid alone. In Germany, the most numerous group is that of Polish Roma, having their main church in Mannheim. Other important and numerous Romani assemblies exist in Los Angeles, Houston, Buenos Aires and Mexico. Some groups in Romania and Chile have joined the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

In the Balkans, the Roma of Macedonia, Kosovo (Southern province of Serbia) and Albania have been particularly active in Islamic mystical brotherhoods (Sufism). Muslim Roma immigrants to Western Europe and America have brought these traditions with them.[citation needed]

[edit] Music

Main article: Roma music

Roma music is very important in Eastern European cultures such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Russia and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Roma musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma, although their music draws from a vast variety of ethnic traditions—for example Romanian, Turkish, Jewish, and Slavic—as well as Roma traditions. Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutar tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Roma music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Goran Bregović in Serbia and Darko Rundek in Croatia.

The distinctive sound of Roma music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt.

The Roma of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from local audiences. They perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on traditonal Turkish instruments such as the darbuka and saz. One of the most prominent Turkish Roma groups are Gypsy Music of Constantinople[citation needed].

Later, Roma people who came to the Americas contributed to almost every musical style. Salsa, rumba, mambo and guajira from Cuba, the tondero, zamacueca and marinera from Peru, mariachi music from Mexico, "llanero" from the borders of Venezuela and Colombia, and even American country music have all been influenced by their mournful violins and soulful guitar.

The Roma anthem is called Gelem, Gelem.

[edit] Language

Main article: Romani language

Most Roma speak Romani, an Indo-Aryan language. Today, however, most Roma also speak the dominant language of their region of residence. Romani is not currently spoken in India.

Some Roma have developed creole languages or mixed languages, including:

[edit] Etymology

Most Roma refer to themselves as Rom. In the Romani language, Rom (man) derives from the Sanskrit ḍōma (man). Alternate spellings of "Rroma" for the people and "Rromanes" for the language, were rejected by the last World Romani Congress, which defined the universal Romani alphabet.

The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy), originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτοι (Aigyptoi), modern Greek γύφτοι (gyphtoi), in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.<ref name="Fraser1992">Fraser 1992.</ref> This ethnonym is not used by the Roma to describe themselves, and is often considered pejorative. However, the use of "gypsy" in English is now so pervasive that many Roma organizations use the word gypsy in their own names. In North America, the word "Gypsy" is often misunderstood as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Roma ethnicity. The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin.<ref name="dictionnaire">See for example the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française.</ref>

In most of continental Europe, Roma are known by many names, most of them similar to the Hungarian cigány (pronounced IPA /ˈʦiɡaːɲ/). Early Byzantium literature suggests that the various names now referring to Gypsies, such as tzigane, zincali, gitani, cigány, etc., are derived from the Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi, Latin adsincani), applied to Roma during Byzantine times,<ref>A Brief History of the Rom</ref> or from the Greek term αθίγγανοι (athinganoi)<ref>[8]</ref> in reference to a 9th-century heretical sect that had been accused of practising magic and fortune-telling.<ref>Roma (Gypsies) in the Byzantine empire </ref> In modern Greek, aside from the term Rom (Ρομ), the terms gyphtoi (Greek:γύφτοι) and tsigganoi (Greek:τσιγγάνοι) are interchangeable and both are used when referring to the Roma.

Outside Europe, Roma are referred to by more varied names, such as Kowli (کولی) in Iran; Lambani, Labana Lambadi, Rabari or Banjara in India; Ghajar (غجر) or Nawar (نور') in Arabic; and tzo`anim צוענים in Hebrew (after an ancient city in Egypt and the biblical verb צענ ṣā‛an - roaming).

There is no direct connection between the name Roma (ethnicity) and the city of Rome, ancient Rome, Romania, the Romanian people or the Romanian language.

[edit] Genetics

Image:Gipsy Encampment Fac simile of a Copper plate by Callot.png
Gipsy Encampment - facsimile of a copper-plate by Callot.

Genetic data strongly supports linguistic evidence that the Roma originated on the Indian subcontinent. Studies of Bulgarian, Baltic and Vlax Roma genetics suggest that about 50% of observed haplotypes belong to Y-chromosomal haplogroup H. Similar studies of the same population with mitochondrial DNA show 50% belong to female mitochondrial haplogroup M. Both of these are widespread across South Asia.

This genetic evidence indicates that approximately half of the gene pool of these studied Roma is similar to that of the surrounding European populations. Specifically, common Y-chromosome (i.e. male-line) haplogroups are haplogroups H (50%), I (22%) and J2 (14%), and R1b (7%). Common mitochondrial (i.e. female-line) haplogroups are H (35%), M (26%), U3 (10%), X (7%), other (20%). Whereas male haplogroup H and female M are rare in non-Roma European populations, the rest are found throughout Europe. However, female haplogroups U2i and U7 are almost absent from female Roma, but are present in South Asia (11%-35% approx).

By contrast, male Sinti Roma in Central Europe have H (20%), J2 (20%) and a high frequency of R2 (50%) which is found frequently in West Bengal and among the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka. The M217 marker, which accounts for about 1.6% of male Roma, is also found in West Bengal (Kivisild (2003) et al). Haplogroup L is found in about 10% of Indian males but is absent from Roma (though Gresham et al. does not seem to test for it), and also from West Bengal and Central Asian Sinti (Kivisild (2003) et al). However, a search of the Yhrd database shows that some Roma populations in Europe have considerable percentages of male haplogroup R1a1. Yhrd gives few matches with South Asian populations, but a large number of matches on haplogroup H with British Asian Londoners, a population that has a large proportion of Bengali and Sri Lankan groups.

All these genetic studies indicate a South-East Indian origin of the male Roma population. Haplogroup R1a1 occurs around 35-45% in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, but only 10-15% in the southeast. On the other hand, Y-haplogroups H, R2 and J2 increase in frequency towards the southeast. R2 occurs around 20-40% in West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh (Bamshad et al. 2001, Kivisild et al. 2003, Sengupta et al. 2006, Sahoo et al. 2006). H and J2 occur 20-30% in South and East India. A study published in Nature[citation needed] associates the Roma with the Sinhala, and must be viewed from this genetic profile of Romas. Sinhalese are mostly descendants of East and South Indian communities.

Luba Kalaydjieva's research has shown that the original group appeared in India some 32-40 generations ago and was small, likely under 1,000 people.

(Ref: Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies), David Gresham, Bharti Morar, Peter A. Underhill, et al, Am J Hum (2001); The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity, Wells et al.)

[edit] Relations with other peoples

Roma arrivals at the Belzec death camp await instructions.

[edit] Persecution

Because of their nomadic lifestyle and differences in language and culture, there has been a great deal of mutual distrust between the Roma and their more settled neighbours. According to legend in some European nations, particularly in the Black Forest region, at the time of the Crucifixion, no blacksmith would make the nails for the cross. One blacksmith agreed to do so, however, and the spirit of these nails came back to haunt him and his family some years later, forcing them to constantly wander and become the Roma[citation needed]. Another legend has it that one of the Roma stole the nail that had been made to drive through Jesus' heart, thereby gaining the gratitude of Heaven and the right to steal as they wish for all the Roma[citation needed]. Persecution of Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the Nazi genocide of Roma during the Holocaust. The extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became totally extinct as a result.

There are still tensions between the Roma and the majority populations around them. Common complaints are that Roma steal and live off social welfare, and residents often reject Roma encampments.

In the UK, "travellers" (referring to Irish Travellers and New Age Travellers as well as Roma) became a 2005 general election issue, with the leader of the Conservative Party promising to review the Human Rights Act 1998. This law, which absorbs the European Convention on Human Rights into UK primary legislation, is seen by some to permit the granting of retrospective planning permission. Severe population pressures and the paucity of greenfield sites have led to travellers purchasing land, and setting up residential settlements almost overnight, thus subverting the planning restrictions imposed on other members of the community.

Travellers argued in response that thousands of retrospective planning permissions are granted in Britain in cases involving non-Roma applicants each year and that statistics showed that 90% of planning applications by Roma and travellers were initially refused by local councils, compared with a national average of 20% for other applicants, disproving claims of preferential treatment favouring Roma. [9]

They also argued that the root of the problem was that many traditional stopping-places had been barricaded off and that legislation passed by the previous Conservative government had effectively criminalised their community, for example by removing local authorities’ responsibility to provide sites, thus leaving the travellers with no option but to purchase unregistered new sites themselves. [10]

In Denmark there was much controversy when the city of Helsingør decided to put all Roma students in special classes in its public schools. The classes were later abandoned after it was determined that they were discriminatory, and the Roma were put back in regular classes. Reference page in Danish

Despite the low birth rate in the country, Bulgaria's Health Ministry is considering a law aimed to curb the birth rate among minority groups, particularly Roma.<ref>Sofia Mulls Law Curbing Roma Birth Rate</ref>

[edit] Assimilation

During the Enlightenment, Spain briefly and unsuccessfully tried to assimilate the Roma into the mainstream population by forcing them to abandon their language and way of life; even the word gitano was made illegal. Many nations have subsequently attempted to assimilate their Roma populations.

[edit] Roma and crime

The popular image of Roma as tramps and thieves unfit for work contributed to their widespread persecution. This belief is often cited as the etymological source of the term gyp, meaning to "cheat", as in "I got gypped by a con man." The German name Zigeuner is often thought through popular etymology to derive either from Ziehende Gauner, which means 'travelling thieves', or from the Hungarian Cigány from their word "szegény" meaning "poor". The validity of these derivations, however, is disputed.

Roma in European population centers are often associated with petty crime such as pickpocketing. A UN study [11] found that Roma in Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria are arrested for robbery at a much higher rate than other groups. The causes of this association are unclear.

Law enforcement agencies in the United States hold regular conferences on the Roma and similar nomadic groups. It is common to refer to the operators of certain types of travelling con artists [12] and fortune-telling [13] businesses as "gypsies," although many are Irish Travellers or not members of any particular nomadic ethnic group.

[edit] Roma in Central and Eastern Europe

A significant proportion of the world's Roma live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in depressed squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. The current and historical situation of Roma in the region differs from country to country. Although small numbers of Roma still embrace a nomadic lifestyle, most migration is actually forced, as most communities do not accept Roma settlements.

[edit] Roma in Spain

Main article: Roma in Spain

Roma in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large amount of Romani loan words. Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range as low as 600,000 and as high as 800,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000.[14]

[edit] Roma in Israel

Roma in Israel, as in the rest of the Middle East, are known as Domari. Before 1948, there was an Arabic-speaking Domari community in Jaffa, whose members were noted for their involvement in street theatre and circus performances. They are the subject of the play "The Gypsies of Jaffa" (Hebrew: הצוענים של יפו), by the late Nissim Aloni, considered among Israel's foremost playwrights, and the play came to be considered a classic of the Israeli theatre (see [15]). Like most other Jaffa Palestinians, this community was uprooted in the face of the Israeli advance in April 1948, and its descendants are assumed to be presently living in the Gaza Strip refugee camps; it is unknown to what degree they still preserve a separate Domari identity. Another Domari community is known to exist in East Jerusalem. In October 1999, the nonprofit organisation "Domari: The Society of Gypsies in Jerusalem" was established by Amoun Sleem to advocate on this community's behalf.[16]

Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII Displaced Persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist agents arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Roma living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romani lullabies and a small number of Romani expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, speak Hebrew.[citation needed]

[edit] Fictional representations of Roma

Image:Roma people 1837.jpg
A Roma family travelling (1837 print)

Many fictional depictions of the Roma emphasize their supposed mystical powers or criminal nature. They often appear as stock villains, bucolic nomads, or a sort of supernatural deus ex machina.

[edit] Groups in Europe sometimes mistaken for Roma

In Europe, where the settled lifestyle has long been the norm, other non-Indo-Aryan nomadic peoples, have also been labeled Gypsies for convenience or by accident. The Roma used to refer to some of these groups as didicoy.

[edit] Notes

<references />

[edit] References

  • Achim, Viorel (2004). "The Roma in Romanian History." Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9241-84-9.
  • Auzias, Claire. Les funambules de l'histoire. Baye: Éditions la Digitale, 2002.
  • De Soto, Hermine. Roma and Egyptians in Albania : From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Publications, 2005.
  • Fraser, Angus The Gypsies : Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK, 1992 ISBN 0-631-15967-3.
  • Genner, Michael. Spartakus, 2 vols. Munich: Trikont, 1979-80.
  • “Germany Reaches Deal to Deport Thousands of Gypsies to Romania,” Migration World Magazine, Nov-Dec 1992.
  • Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin." Nature.
  • Gresham, D; et al. (2001). "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)." American Journal of Human Genetics. 69(6), 1314-1331. [17]
  • Helsinki Watch. Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia’s Endangered Gypsies. New York, 1991.
  • Lemon, Alaina (2000). Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3
  • Luba Kalaydjieva; et al. (2001). "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages." European Journal of Human Genetics. 9, 97-104. [18]
  • Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin. (2001) "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire." Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • McDowell, Bart (1970). "Gypsies, Wanderers of the World". National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-088-8.
  • "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders." National Geographic, April 2001, 72-101.
  • Ringold, Dena. Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe : Trends & Challenges. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000. pg. 3,5, & 7.
  • Roberts, Samuel. The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination. London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
  • Silverman, Carol. “Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, Summer 1995.
  • Simson, Walter. History of the Gipsies. London: S. Low, 1865.
  • Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature. Oxford: Berghahn.
  • Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan. In: Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 3rd Ser. 5/4, pp. 145–188.
  • Danish Broadcasting Corporation A page in Danish about Roma treatment in Denmark
  • Firdawsi Tousi. “Shah-Nameh” (book of Kings) ca. 1000 A.D.

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Erich Hackl, Farewell Sidonia, New York: Fromm International Pub., 1991. ISBN 0-88064-124-X. (Translated from the German, Abschied von Sidonie (1989)

[edit] External links

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[edit] Non-governmental organisations

[edit] Roma news media sources

[edit] Museums and Libraries

ca:Gitano cs:Romové da:Roma (folkeslag) de:Roma (Volk) et:Mustlased el:Ρομ es:Gitano eo:Cigano eu:Ijito fa:کولی‌ها fr:Rom (peuple) ko:로마인 hr:Romi it:Popolo Rom he:צוענים hu:Roma mk:Роми nl:Roma (volk) ja:ロマ no:Sigøynere nn:Sigøynarar pl:Romowie pt:Rom (povo) ro:Rromi rmy:Roma ru:Цыгане sk:Róm sr:Роми fi:Romanit sv:Romer tr:Çingene uk:Цигани ur:خانہ بدوش yi:ציגאנער zh:罗姆人

Roma people

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