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Coordinates: 47.68489° 16.58305°

Country: Hungary
County: Győr-Moson-Sopron
Area: 169.06 km²
Population (2005):
- Density:
Postal code: 9400
Area code: 99
Coordinates: 47.68489° N 16.58305° E
As it is indicated by these signs, Sopron/Ödenburg is a bilingual city with Hungarian and German being official languages.
For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county).

Sopron (pronounced "shop-ron"; German: Ödenburg) is a city in Hungary near the Austrian border. It is located at 47°41′12″N, 16°34′49″E, a short train ride from Vienna.


[edit] History

[edit] Ancient times-1400s

Image:Sopron city.jpg
Aerial photography: Sopron

The area has been inhabited since ancient times. When the area that is today Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire, a city called Scarbantia stood here. Its forum was where the main square of Sopron can now be found.

During the Migration Period Scarbantia was deserted and by the time Hungarians arrived in the area, it was in ruins. In the 9th11th centuries Hungarians strengthened the old Roman city walls and built a castle. The town received its Hungarian name at this time from a castle steward named Suprun. In 1153 it was mentioned as an important town.

In 1273 King Otakar II of Bohemia occupied the castle. Even though he took the children of Sopron's nobility with him as hostages, the city opened its gates when the armies of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary arrived. The king awarded Sopron by elevating her to the rank of free royal town.

[edit] 1500s-1800s

During the Ottoman occupation of Hungary the Ottoman Turks ravaged the city in 1529 but did not occupy it. Many people from the occupied areas fled to Sopron, and the city's importance grew.

In 1676 Sopron was destroyed by a fire. The modern-day city was born in the next few decades, when beautiful Baroque buildings were built in place of the old medieval ones. Sopron became seat of the comitatus Sopron.

[edit] 1900s

Image:Sopron Fire Tower.jpg
Sopron's Fire Tower

Following the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, four western Hungarian counties were awarded to Austria in the Treaties of St.Germain (1919) and Trianon (1920). After local unrest, Sopron's status as part of Hungary (along with that of the surrounding eight villages) was decided by a local plebiscite held on December 14, 1921, with 65% voting for Hungary. Since then Sopron has been called Civitas Fidelissima ("The Most Loyal Town", Hungarian: A Hűség Városa), and the anniversary of the plebiscite is a city holiday. The other three counties today form the Austrian federal state of Burgenland.

Sopron suffered greatly during World War II, as it was bombed several times. The Soviet Red Army occupied the city on March 6, 1945. In August 1989 It was the site of the Pan-European Picnic, a protest by anti-communist activists on the border between Austria and Hungary, which was used by over 200 citizens of East Germany to cross illegally to the west. As the first successful crossing of the border it helped pave the way for the mass flight of East German citizens that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989.

During the Socialist era the government unsuccessfully tried to turn Sopron into an industrial city, allowing the city to remain an attractive site for tourists.

[edit] Wine production

Sopron is a significant wine producing region, one of the few in Hungary to make both red and white wines. Grapes include Kékfrankos for red wine and Traminer (Gewürztraminer) for white wine. In climate it is similar to the neighbouring Burgenland wine region in Austria, and several winemakers make wine in both countries.

[edit] Architecture

The architecture of the old section of town reflects its long history; walls and foundations from the Roman Empire are still common, together with a wealth of Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque structures, often artistically decorated, showing centuries of stability and prosperity.

There is an old synagogue and other remains from the town's former Jewish community, which was expelled in the 16th century.

[edit] Sports

MFC Sopron is a football team based in Sopron.

[edit] Famous residents

[edit] Twin towns

Sopron is twinned with:

[edit] External links

Counties of Hungary Image:Flag of Hungary.svg
Counties: Bács-Kiskun | Baranya | Békés | Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén | Csongrád | Fejér | Győr-Moson-Sopron | Hajdú-Bihar | Heves | Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok | Komárom-Esztergom | Nógrád | Pest | Somogy | Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg | Tolna | Vas | Veszprém | Zala
Urban counties: Békéscsaba | Debrecen | Dunaújváros | Eger | Érd | Győr | Hódmezővásárhely | Kaposvár | Kecskemét | Miskolc | Nagykanizsa | Nyíregyháza | Pécs | Salgótarján | Sopron | Szeged | Szekszárd | Székesfehérvár | Szolnok | Szombathely | Tatabánya | Veszprém | Zalaegerszeg
Capital: Budapest
See also: Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary; Geography of Hungary

cs:Sopron de:Sopron eo:Sopron fr:Sopron ko:쇼프론 it:Sopron he:שופרון hu:Sopron nl:Sopron ja:ショプロン pl:Sopron pt:Sopron ro:Sopron simple:Sopron sv:Sopron


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