Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

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Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County
Image:SzabolcsSzatmarBeregCounty.gif
Region Northern Great Plain
County seat Nyíregyháza
Area 5936 km²
Population 572,423
Population density 96/km²
Municipalities 228

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-eastern Hungary, on the border with Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Hajdú-Bihar and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. The capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is Nyíregyháza.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county was created after World War II from the pre-1938 counties Szatmár-Ugocsa-Bereg and Szabolcs. Before approx. 1990, it was called Szabolcs-Szatmár county.

Contents

[edit] History

Settlments developed in the area after the conquest of the Magyars, devastated by the Mongol invasion in 1241, and blocking their development for several decades. The history of Nyíregyháza provides an appropriate example for this process. The Turks hardly succeeded in invading the northern parts of the region: therefore, many buildings from Árpád's age and the Medieval Era were preserved in relatively good state. In the Romanesque church of Csaroda, there are wall paintings dating back to the 13th century, and the Medieval churches of Nyírbátor have been almost completely preserved. In the 16th century, the spread of Protestantism and Calvinism brought about changes in town life.

[edit] Geography

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is situated in Hungary's far east, at the north-eastern tip of the country. It borders the Ukraine, the Slovak Republic and Romania, and has good communications both by road and rail. Within Hungary, the county is bordered by Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county and the River Tisza from the north west and Hajdú-Bihar county from the south west.

The early Hungarians transformed this region significantly by clearing large areas of forest to make way for pastures and plough-land. Approximately 500-600 hectares of forest were cleared for the construction of the Szabolcs earthwork in the ninth and tenth centuries and its ruins are still present. With the subsequent development of the country, the region became marginalized in the 15th century. On going civil war, rebellion and war exacted a heavy price and further hindered the region's development.

The county's borders have been altered frequently over the years, its current territory being established in 1950 with the amalgamation of the counties of Szabolcs-Ung and Szatmár-Bereg-Ugocsa.

There are many forests, fields, pastures, meadows and moorland forests in the county. The bog moss moors at Csaroda, the Nyíres lake and the Bábtava lake are especially valuable, as they contain many rare species of fauna and flora.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is Hungary's sixth biggest county with a total land area of 5 936 square kilometres. From a geographical aspect, it is possible to divide the county into two main regions: The Upper Tisza Valley and the Nyírség. Tisza is the most important river of the county. It enters Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg - and Hungary - at Tiszabecs, and leaves the county at Tiszadob. Its segment in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is 235 kilometres long, out of which 208 kilometres belongs to the Upper Tisza Valley, reaching the area of Tokaj and Rakamaz. The area named the Nyírség, the larger of the two regions of the county, is derived from the word nyír meaning birch, as the region is dominated by birch woodlands. The northern part of Nyírség is covered with sandy forest soils, the southern areas have loose wind-blown sand. Alluvial and meadow soils are found in the Upper Tisza region.

The county has a continental climate; it is cooler than the Great Plain because it is further north. Summers are cooler than in other parts of the Plains. Annual precipitation is 550-600 millimetres. The higher than average number of days of sunshine make ideal conditions for the growing of tomatoes, sunflower, tobacco, apples and other fruits.

The county has 229 settlements, of which 20 are towns. The county capital and largest city is Nyíregyháza with a population of 116 900 in 2003. The other cities have relatively small populations, only those of Kisvárda and Mátészalka having around 18 000 inhabitants. The eastern part of the county is lightly populated and is dotted with small villages which often have very poor economic conditions.

[edit] River Tisza

The Upper Tisza region has many streams and rivers, but the Nyírség region has little surface water. The most important of River Tisza's tributaries is the River Szamos, which is also characterised by great variations in water volume. There are irrigation systems, a water barrage and a Hydro-electric power station on the Tisza at Tiszalök.

Lakes of various sizes have evolved in sandy areas such as the basin of the Sóstó (Salty lake) of Nyíregyháza, whose alkaline, hydrogen carbonated waters have medicinal qualities. Many water reservoirs have been built according to local demand. Thermal waters of 55-65 °C can be brought to the surface from wells as shallow as 1 000 metres. The most important thermal water reserves are in Nyíregyháza, Kisvárda, Mátészalka and Tiszavasvári. The county's geothermal energy still awaits exploitation.

The county has relatively few mineral reserves. Almost all of the big energy source transporting systems cross the county.

[edit] Economy

The county borders three countries, and it is the only county bordering the Ukraine. The railway crossing the border towards the Ukraine is well developed, with high capacity and is thus able to satisfy the requirements of transit traffic and of bilateral trade. Following the reconstruction of the road border crossing, the county is also able to cope with increased road transportation.

Several regions in the county have tourismpotential, so far mostly unexploited. Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg has several agricultural products of excellent quality, with capacity for higher production. There is an abundance of low-cost labour.

The county's biggest problem is the economic crisis. There is a shortage of local capital and inward investment, which restrains the creation of new jobs, thus the second highest unemployment rate of Hungary has not decreased enough. The performance of industry lags behind the rest of the country and the product structure is unfavourable with not enough high quality, high value-added products. The labour force has low qualifications on average. The quality of soils is bad, thus the scope for economical agricultural production is limited to a few products, which, at present, are suffering from the shrinking of the eastern markets.

[edit] Government

[edit] Regional structure

[edit] City with county rights

[edit] Cities and towns

(ordered by population, according to the 2001 census)

Mátészalka (18 749) Nyírtelek (7150) Kemecse (5037)
Kisvárda (18 220) Nagyecsed (6930) Záhony (4815)
Tiszavasvári (14 585) Ibrány (6891) Demecser (4566)
Újfehértó (13 657) Balkány (6809) Dombrád (4283)
Nyírbátor (13 456) Tiszalök (6132) Baktalórántháza (4272)
Nagykálló (10 814) Nagyhalász (5934) Nyírlugos (3009)
Vásárosnamény (9325) Csenger (5234) Máriapócs (2186)
Fehérgyarmat (9046) Rakamaz (5206)

[edit] Villages

Ajak Gávavencsellő Komoró Nyíribrony Ramocsaháza Tiszakerecseny
Anarcs Gelénes Kótaj Nyírjákó Rápolt Tiszakóród
Apagy Gemzse Kölcse Nyírkarász Rétközberencs Tiszamogyorós
Aranyosapáti Geszteréd Kömörő Nyírkáta Rohod Tiszanagyfalu
Balsa Géberjén Laskod Nyírkércs Rozsály Tiszarád
Barabás Gégény Levelek Nyírlövő Sényő Tiszaszalka
Bátorliget Gulács Lónya Nyírmada Sonkád Tiszaszentmárton
Benk Győröcske Lövőpetri Nyírmeggyes Szabolcs Tiszatelek
Beregdaróc Győrtelek Magosliget Nyírmihálydi Szabolcsbáka Tiszavid
Beregsurány Gyulaháza Magy Nyírparasznya Szabolcsveresmart Tisztaberek
Berkesz Gyügye Mánd Nyírpazony Szakoly Tivadar
Besenyőd Gyüre Mándok Nyírpilis Szamosangyalos Tornyospálca
Beszterec Hermánszeg Márokpapi Nyírtass Szamosbecs Tunyogmatolcs
Biri Hetefejércse Mátyus Nyírtét Szamoskér Tuzsér
Botpalád Hodász Mezőladány Nyírtura Szamossályi Túristvándi
Bököny Ilk Méhtelek Nyírvasvári Szamosszeg Túrricse
Buj Jánd Mérk Olcsva Szamostatárfalva Tyukod
Cégénydányád Jánkmajtis Milota Olcsvaapáti Szamosújlak Ura
Csaholc Jármi Nagyar Ópályi Szatmárcseke Uszka
Csaroda Jéke Nagycserkesz Ököritófülpös Székely Újdombrád
Császló Kállósemjén Nagydobos Ömböly Szorgalmatos Újkenéz
Csegöld Kálmánháza Nagyhódos Őr Tarpa Vaja
Csengersima Kántorjánosi Nagyszekeres Panyola Tákos Vasmegyer
Csengerújfalu Kék Nagyvarsány Pap Terem Vállaj
Darnó Kékcse Napkor Papos Tiborszállás Vámosatya
Döge Kérsemjén Nábrád Paszab Timár Vámosoroszi
Encsencs Kisar Nemesborzova Pátroha Tiszaadony Zajta
Eperjeske Kishódos Nyírbéltek Pátyod Tiszabecs Zsarolyán
Érpatak Kisléta Nyírbogát Penészlek Tiszabercel Zsurk
Fábiánháza Kisnamény Nyírbogdány Penyige Tiszabezdéd
Fényeslitke Kispalád Nyírcsaholy Petneháza Tiszacsécse
Fülesd Kisszekeres Nyírcsászári Piricse Tiszadada
Fülpösdaróc Kisvarsány Nyírderzs Porcsalma Tiszadob
Gacsály Kocsord Nyírgelse Pócspetri Tiszaeszlár
Garbolc Komlódtótfalu Nyírgyulaj Pusztadobos Tiszakanyár
County of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg
</b> Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Topics | History | Geography | Government | Politics | Economy | People from Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg
County seat Nyíregyháza

Cities and towns
Baktalórántháza | Balkány | Csenger | Demecser | Dombrád | Fehérgyarmat | Ibrány | Kemecse | Kisvárda | Máriapócs | Mátészalka | Nagyhalász | Nagyecsed | Nagykálló |Nyírbátor | Nyírlugos | Nyírtelek | Rakamaz | Tiszalök | Tiszavasvári | Újfehértó | Vásárosnamény | Záhony</font>

Villages
Ajak | Anarcs | Apagy | Aranyosapáti | Balsa | Barabás | Bátorliget | Benk | Beregdaróc |Beregsurány | Berkesz | Besenyőd | Beszterec |Biri | Botpalád | Bököny | Buj | Cégénydányád | Csaholc | Csaroda | Császló | Csegöld | Csengersima | Csengerújfalu | Darnó | Döge | Encsencs | Eperjeske | Érpatak | Fábiánháza | Fényeslitke | Fülesd | Fülpösdaróc | Gacsály | Garbolc | Gávavencsellő | Gelénes | Gemzse | Geszteréd | Géberjén | Gégény | Gulács | Győröcske | Győrtelek | Gyulaháza | Gyügye | Gyüre | Hermánszeg | Hetefejércse | Hodász | Ilk | Jánd | Jánkmajtis | Jármi | Jéke | Kállósemjén | Kálmánháza | Kántorjánosi  | Kék | Kékcse | Kérsemjén | Kisar | Kishódos | Kisléta | Kisnamény | Kispalád | Kisszekeres | Kisvarsány | Kocsord | Komlódtótfalu | Komoró | Kótaj | Kölcse | Kömörő | Laskod | Levelek | Lónya | Lövőpetri | Magosliget | Magy | Mánd | Mándok | Márokpapi | Mátyus | Mezőladány | Méhtelek | Mérk | Milota | Nagyar | Nagycserkesz | Nagydobos | Nagyhódos | Nagyszekeres | Nagyvarsány | Napkor | Nábrád | Nemesborzova | Nyírbéltek | Nyírbogát | Nyírbogdány | Nyírcsaholy | Nyírcsászári | Nyírderzs | Nyírgelse | Nyírgyulaj | Nyíribrony | Nyírjákó | Nyírkarász | Nyírkáta | Nyírkércs | Nyírlövő | Nyírmada | Nyírmeggyes | Nyírmihálydi | Nyírparasznya | Nyírpazony | Nyírpilis | Nyírtass | Nyírtét | Nyírtura | Nyírvasvári | Olcsva | Olcsvaapáti | Ököritófülpös | Ömböly | Ópályi | Őr | Panyola | Pap | Papos | Paszab | Pátroha | Pátyod | Penészlek | Penyige | Petneháza | Piricse | Porcsalma | Pócspetri | Pusztadobos | Ramocsaháza | Rápolt | Rétközberencs | Rohod | Rozsály | Sényő | Sonkád | Szabolcs | Szabolcsbáka | Szabolcsveresmart | Szakoly | Szamosangyalos | Szamosbecs | Szamoskér | Szamossályi | Szamosszeg | Szamostatárfalva | Szamosújlak | Székely | Szorgalmatos | Tarpa | Tákos | Terem | Tiborszállás | Timár | Tiszaadony | Tiszabercel | Tiszabecs | Tiszabezdéd | Tiszacsécse | Tiszadada | Tiszadob | Tiszaeszlár | Tiszakanyár | Tiszakerecseny | Tiszakóród | Tiszamogyorós | Tiszanagyfalu | Tiszarád | Tiszaszalka | Tiszaszentmárton | Tiszatelek | Tiszavid | Tisztaberek | Tivadar | Tornyospálca |Tunyogmatolcs | Tuzsér | Túristvándi | Túrricse | Tyukod | Újdombrád | Újkenéz | Ura | Uszka | Vaja | Vállaj | Vámosatya | Vámosoroszi | Vasmegyer | Zajta | Zsarolyán | Zsurk
Counties of Hungary Image:Flag of Hungary.svg
Counties: Bács-Kiskun | Baranya | Békés | Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén | Csongrád | Fejér | Győr-Moson-Sopron | Hajdú-Bihar | Heves | Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok | Komárom-Esztergom | Nógrád | Pest | Somogy | Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg | Tolna | Vas | Veszprém | Zala
Urban counties: Békéscsaba | Debrecen | Dunaújváros | Eger | Érd | Győr | Hódmezővásárhely | Kaposvár | Kecskemét | Miskolc | Nagykanizsa | Nyíregyháza | Pécs | Salgótarján | Sopron | Szeged | Szekszárd | Székesfehérvár | Szolnok | Szombathely | Tatabánya | Veszprém | Zalaegerszeg
Capital: Budapest
See also: Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary; Geography of Hungary

Coordinates: 48°00′N 22°10′Ebg:Саболч-Сатмар-Берег cs:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg de:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg eo:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg fr:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg it:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg hu:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye nl:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg pl:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg pt:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg ro:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg ru:Сабольч-Сатмар-Берег (медье) fi:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg sv:Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg zh:索博爾奇-索特馬爾-貝拉格州

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

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